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Envirothon Team

TermDefinition
abiotic non-living factor in an environment ex. light, water, soil, temperature, rocks
acid rain rain, snow, or other forms of water that are made more acid by waster gases that come mainly from the burning of coal and oil products
acorn the fruit of an oak tree
adapted; adaptation the process of making adjustments to the environment. ex. plants grow only where soil types, moisture, and sunlight are balanced, coloration of an animal, webbed feet
aerated aeration to supply with air or oxygen; to loosen the soil to add air space to it
aerobic living or occurring only in the presence of oxygen
aesthetic sensitivity to or appreciation of beauty through recognition of its unique and varied components or through its orderly appearance
aggregate to gather into a group or mass
air quality a gauge of the concentration of one or more chemicals in the atmosphere that could potentially be harmful to humans, other animals, vegetation, or materials
allantois part of an egg that receives waste from the embryo
alluvial deposits sedimentary deposits (like a delta) in fresh water
amnion a thin, fluid-like sack that encloses the embryo in an egg
amphibian an animal that when young lives in an aquatic habit and breathes by gills; as an adult it lives primarily in a terrestrial habitat breathing by lungs and through moist glandular skin
amphibole/pyroxenes easily weathered group of minerals that provides calcium and magnesium, not as abundant as feldspars
anadromous any species of fish that lives in saltwater and spawns in freshwater ex. salmon, shad, striped bass
anaerobic an organism like bacteria that lives without the presence of oxygen
animal community animals of various species living within a certain habitat each occupying a specific position in that particular environment
annual turnover the rate of replacement of individual animals in a population. ex. birds may have a 70% annual turnover. This means that 30% of the birds at the beginning of one year are still alive at the end of the year. The reproductive rate will match the turnover
anthropomorphism the attribution of human characteristics to non-humans, especially animals.
asbestos a natural fibrous material that was once commonly used for fireproofing and sound or heat insulation - can cause lung cancer
atmosphere consists of the troposphere and the stratosphere, which comprise the whole mass of air surround the Earth
aquatic growing, living in, or frequenting waters
BMP Best Management Practice
bacteria single celled microorganisms that lack chlorophyll. Many break down organic matter in the air, the water, and the soil.
bag limit the maximum number of animals allowed to be taken by an individual in regulated hunting. ex. deer hunter may kill one deer per year
barbel a whisker-like projection for the jaws of some fish such as carp or catfish - help a fish to taste and feel
behavior what an animal does
"big game" larger hunted species such as deer, elk, moose, bear, and big horn
bioaccumulation the build-up of chemicals in a plant or animal ex. DDT in bluebirds
biology the study of living organisms
biodiversity the variety of life forms in a given area
biogeochemical cycles movement of matter within or between ecosystems caused by the interaction of living organisms, geologic forces, or chemical reactions
biologist a person who studies living organisms and their relationship to one another
biological diversity the variety of life forms in a given area ex. number of species, variety of species in an area (plant and animal)
biomass the total weights of all living matter in a particular habitat, at a given moment in time
biome a large geographic area with somewhat uniform climatic conditions characterized by distinctive types of vegetation
biotic the living components of an ecosystem
biosphere the part of the earth's crust where living organisms can exist
biota the animal and plant life of a region or period
biotic community the living organisms in a given community (plant and animal)
biotic potential the capacity of a population of animals or plant to increase in numbers under optimum environmental conditions
blind a hiding place for observing wildlife
breeding a series of complex behavioral interactive patterns from courtship to mating, rearing young which are necessary for the confutation of a species
brood the offspring of a bird or mammal
browse a term used in wildlife management to signify brushy plants eaten by deer, elk, or cattle to eat the twigs and leaves or woody plants
buffer strip narrow zone or strip of land, trees, or vegetation bordering an area. ex. visual buffers alongside roads, stream side buffers used to protect water quality
burrowing digging a hole or tunnel
camouflage colors, tones, patterns, shapes or behaviors that enable an organism to blend in with its surroundings
carbohydrates sugars, starches, and cellulose that are produced by green plants and are important nutritional sources of energy for many animals
carbon cycle the circulation and recycling of carbon atoms, especially through the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition
carnivore meat eater
carrying capacity wildlife management term for the equilibrium expressed by the availability of habitat components and the number of animals in a given area. ex. having enough food, mates, water, shelter to support the wildlife
cast to regurgitate indigestible prey remains
catadromous any species of fish that lives in freshwater and spawns in saltwater ex. eel
catfish a group of fish without scales named for the barbels around their mouths that look like the whiskers of a cat
cell the smallest living unit of an organism
chorion the outer membrane enclosing the embryo in reptiles, birds, and mammals
climate the kind of weather a place has over a period of years, based on conditions of heat and cold, moisture and dryness, clearness and cloudiness, wind and calm
climatic the average condition of the weather as defined by temperature, precipitation, and wind velocities; the environmental conditions relating to weather
climax the final stage of plant or animal succession; when environmental conditions have been stable long enough for an are ate develop a semi-permanent biome
climax community the relatively stable association under existing conditions of soil and climate that represents the final stage of succession
coastal plain large, nearly level areas of land near ocean shores
codominate to be one of two or more of the most characteristic species in a biotic community
coloration genetically-controlled patterns or markings that can protect an individual organism
commensalism a relationship between two organisms of different species in which one organism benefits while the other is generally neither helped or harmed
community an association of organism (plants & animals) each occupying a certain position or ecological niche, inhabiting a common environment and interacting with each other, all the plants and animals in a particular habitat that are bound together by food chains
competition when two or more organisms compete to use the same resource, may be inter- or intra- specific
conservation the use of natural resources in a way that ensures their continuing availability to future generations; the intelligent use of natural resources for long-term benefits
Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) a federal program designed to remove highly erodible, marginal farmland from production through a one-time cost-sharing payment to establish tress, grass, or tother cover. The landowner receives a 10 year annual rental payment to maintain the cover.
consumer an organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms and their remains
congregate when animals group together in an area
consumptive use in general terms related to wildlife, any used resulting in the use of wildlife after harvest. ex. death of an animal as in hunting, fishing, and trapping
corridor a track of land forming a passageway
courtship a pre-mating behavior where the male tries to woo or court the female in order to mate
cover vegetation and other land features that provide areas for wildlife to hide, sleep, feed, and reproduce
covey a small flock or group often a family group of birds such as quail
crepuscular active at dawn and dusk
cycle a periodically repealed sequence of events
DDT a colorless contact insecticide - banned in the US for most uses since 1972
dabbling ducks ducks which frequent shallow marshes, ponds, and rivers and "up up" to feed. They feed with their body above water and take off vertically when startled.
daphnia any of many kinds of water fleas
decadent dealing in health and/or productivity
decibel a unit of intensity of sound
decomposer a plant, animal, or fungi which fees on dead material and causes its mechanical or chemical breakdown
denitrification to remove nitrogen or nitrogen-containing gases
dense thick, or crowded closely together
density number of organisms per unit of space
depredation the act of preying upon, usually in relation to wildlife damage to people's crops or animals
desert an arid habitat with limited amounts of vegetation
detrimental having harmful effects
dew water droplets condensed from the air onto cool surfaces such as grass or leaves
dissolved oxygen the oxygen mixed into water and used by fish - the dissolved oxygen is usually put into the water by wind, current, plants, and micro-organisms
display an observable behavioral pattern that carries a specific message
diurnal active by daylight (opposite of nocturnal)
diversity variety
diving ducks ducks that prefer to feed in deep water like lakes and bays
domesticated referring to animals which humans have tamed, kept in captivity, and bred for special purposes
dominant species the plant or animal species which exerts major controlling influence on the community
DNR Department of Natural Resources
drought the lack of normal precipitation for an extended period of time
early successional describes a species adapted to the beginning or early stages of biotic succession - the first species to invade a cleared area
ecology the scientific study of the relations of living things to one another and their environment
ecological diversity the variety of forest, desert, grasslands, oceans, stream and other biological communities interacting with one another and with their non-living environment
ecological islands small spaces of wildlife and plant habitat remaining when land is cleared for farming or urban development
ecological niche the role played by an organism in a biological community - its food preferences, its requirements for shelter, its special behaviors, and the timing of its activities
ecosphere a term for the total of all the regions on the earth capable of supporting life
ecosystem all living things and their environment in an area of any size where all are linked together by energy and nutrient flow
ecosystem management use of ecosystem concepts to predict the effects of management actions on the ecosystem and to guide management planning and actions
ecological succession the changes, over time, in the structure and function of an ecosystem. When no previous vegetation exists on a site, the process is called primary succession. When a sited supported vegetation previously but was disturbed, the process is secondary
ecologist a scientist who studies the interrelation of living things to one another and their environment
ecology the scientific study of the relations of living things to one another and to their environment
ecotone a land area where two different succession layers come together - good wildlife habitat
edge effect the tendency of wildlife to use the areas where two different vegetative types come together forming an edge, where rabbits concentrate in an area where brush land and meadow land meet because of the diversity of food, shelter,a dn other habitat component
edge habitat the transition zone between two different habitat types
endangered a species that is in dandle of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range
energy flow the one-way passage or transfer of energy through an ecosystem according to the laws of thermodynamics
endemic pertaining to a population that is restricted to a particular geographic area
entomology the study of insects
environment the sum of all external conditions and influences, living and nonliving that affect the development and survival of an organism
epidermis the outermost layer or layers of cells in a plant or animal
estuary a partly enclosed body of water where sea water and fresh water meet and mix
ethics a personal or social moral code
evaporation a physical change of state in which a liquid is transformed into a vapor or gas
evapotranspiration the evaporation of water from the soil and the transpiration of water from the plants that live in that soil
excavate to make a city or hole; to hollow out
exotic species a species that is not native to the ecosystem - also called invader species
exclusion keeping something out of an area
extinction the condition having been removed from existence
eutrophic a type of body of water that has high levels of nutrients
famine an extreme shortage of food in a given area
fauna animals, especially the animals of a particular region or period considered as a group
feed lot an enclosed area in which animals such as hogs or cattle are fed before being sold for meat
feldspars the most abundant group of minerals in the earth's crust
feral used in wildlife as referring to domesticated animals gone wild
fiber a thread-like body or filament many times longer than its diameter - usually vegetable origin
field an area devoid of trees and generally characterized by either grasses or cultivated crops
filter any substance through which air, smoke, or liquid passes to remove impurities or recover solids
fingerling a young fish, about as long as the length of your finger
fire scars scar tissue that develops when a tree or shrub is burned by fire but is not killed
fire triangle the three components necessary for a fire to burn - heat, fuel, and oxygen
firebreak any nonflammable barrier used to slow or stop fires. ex. mineral soil barriers, barriers of green slow-burning vegetation, and mechanically cleared areas
fisheries management the science of management of fish populations through research, habitat manipulation, stocking, water quality control, and regulations
flat or straight planting planting trees directly into the ground without beds or without first moving logging debris
flora a list of the species of plants that make up the vegetation for an are
fluctuate to vary, or rise and fall irregularly
flyway fly routes established by migratory birds
food chain the transfer of food energy from organisms in one nutritional level to those in another
food web a complex and interlocking series of food chains
forage refers to the vegetation eaten by animals
forbes low growing herbaceous plants, both annuals, and perennials
Forest Development Program (FDP) a state-and industry-funded cost-sharing program administered by the NC Division of Forest Resources. It pays landowners for approved tree site preparation and planting activities
forest a community of trees, shrubs, herbs, and associated plants and organisms covering a considerable area, that use oxygen, water and soil nutrients as the community attains maturity and reproduces itself
forest ecosystem the organisms, soil, water, and air, associated with a forest, along with other forest-related areas
forest floor the lowest level of the forest, typically composed of small plants, fungi, and decomposing material
forest management the practical application of scientific, economic, and social principles to the administration of a forest, for specified objectives
forest region an extensive area of a continent in which the climax forest associations are closely similar
Forest Management Plan written guidelines for current and future management practices recommended to meet an owner's objectives
Forest Stewardship Program a technical assistance program to help private landowners manage all their forces resources
Forest Stewardship Plan a written document listing activities that enhance or improve forest resources on private land over a 5-year period
forestry the principles and practices for managing, using and enjoying forests - includes managing timber, fish, wildlife, range, and watershed, protecting forest and timber from disease, insects, and fire, harvesting, transporting, manufacturing, preserving wood
Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) a federally funded cost-sharing program of the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service - produces payments to landowners who complete certain approved forest management practices
fossil fuel coal, oil, and other energy sources that formed over millions of years from the remains of ancient plants and animals - major factor in pollution issues
freshwater water that contains little or no salt
fruit the ripened ovary or ovaries of a seed bearing plant along with accessory parts
fungi simple plantlike organisms that lack chlorophyll - include mushrooms, molds, and yeasts - get their nutrition from living on or in other organism or by breaking down dead organic materials
fusiform rust a disease resulting in a canker or swollen area on the limbs of trunks of pine trees from orange spores produced by infected oak leaves.
gaff a "j" shaped, barbless hook on a long handle used to hook large fish while landing them
gamete a reproductive cell having the haploid number of chromosomes capable of fusing with a gamete cell of the opposite sex to produce a fertilized egg
game animal legal designation or animals which may be managed and hunted only under regulation
gas the physical state of a compound that characteristically has no fixed shape or size
generalists species that have broad adaptability; more likely to survive changes in habitat
genetic diversity variability in genetic or hereditary makeup among individuals within a single species
geothermal energy heat transferred from the earth's interior to underground concentrations of water trapped in fractured or porous rock to form steam or hot water
gill a breathing organ located behind the gill cover on a fish's head
girdling encircling the stem of a living tree with cuts that completely sever the bark and the cambium and often go further into the outer sapwood for the purpose of killing the tree by preventing the passage of nutrients
glacial deposits sediment left after glaciers recede
glaciation the action of huge masses of moving ice formed from compacted snow
glcaier a flowing of body of ice, formed in a region where snowfall exceeds melting
glean after the bravest has been completed, gather wasted food in a systematic manner with a minimum of waste and unnecessary effort
global climate change the long term changes in temperature, moisture, and air mass movements occurring globally as a result of changes in the earth's atmosphere
global warming the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earth's innermost atmosphere; believed to be a result of the greenhouse effect of trapping gasses
granular comprised of particles measuring between 2 and 4 millimeters in diameter
grass relatively short plants typically having long narrow leaves and hollow jointed stems
grassland a vegetation community in which grasses are the dominant plants
grazer a herbaceous organism that consumes primarily grasses
greenhouse effect the trapping of heat by gasses such as chlorofluorocarbons and carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere
greenhouse gases gases in Earth's lower atmosphere that trap heat ex. carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, ozone, methane, water, vapor, and nitrous oxide
greenway a linear park or connected system of recreational trails linking parks to residential and urban areas
gross national product total market value in current dollars of all goods and services produced by a country's economy for final use during a year
ground litter layer of the forest floor consisting of decaying organic matter such as leaves, branches, and dead plants
groundwater water that infiltrates the soil and is tired in slowly flowing and slowly renewed underground reservoirs called aquifers
group selection the harvest of clusters of two or more trees in a forest stands. The creation of gaps in the canopy promotes the regeneration of seedlings that grow well in direct or partial sunlight
growth rings growth rings represent the annual increases in wood and diameter growth of the tree. Each ring consists of early wood for springwood and late wood for summerwood
guide one of the circular rings made of metal or artificial material attached to the shaft of a rod for the fishing line to travel through
gymnosperm any class of see plants, mostly trees such as confers, that produce naked seeds not enclosed in fruit
habitat the native environment of an animal or plant or the kind of place that is natural for an animal or plant; an area that provides adequate food, water, shelter, and living space
hardwood deciduous or broadleaf trees
harvest removal of forest crops for eventual use in the marketplace
heartwood the inner core of a woody stem, holly composed of nonliving cells and usually differentiated from the outer enveloping layer called sapwood by its darker color
herb any flowering plant or fern that has a soft, rather than woody stem
herb layer the layer of soft-stemmed plants growing close to the forest floor
herbaceous all grasses and forbes having soft rather than woody stems, including plants called weeds and flowers
herbicide chemicals used to control the growth of plants
herbivore a plant-eating animal
hibernate to pass the winter in a dormant state
high-grading a harvesting technique that removes only the biggest and most valuable trees from a forest stand
home range the area in which an animal travels in the scope of normal activities; not to be confused with territory
hormones a substance produced by one tissue and converted by the bloodstream to another to affect physiological activity like growth
horticulture the science of growing plants
humus the dark organic part of soil formed from decaying plant and animal matter often called topsoil
hunter a person or animal who searches for wildlife with the intent of catching or killing it
hunting pressure the numbers, amount, or concentration of hunters in a specific area and upon a specific animal
hydric a descriptive term referring to plants and soils existing in flooded, saturated, or ponded areas
hydrocarbon an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen, often occurring in petroleum, natural gases, and coals
hydrological cycle the process where water circulates through the ecosystem; includes precipitation, respiration, evaporation, the water cycle
hydrophyte a plant adapted to grow in water
hydropower electric energy produced by falling or flowing water
hyphae a threadlike filament forming the mycelium of a fungus
hypothermia the rapid and abnormal chilling of the body
hypsometer an instrument used to measure the heights of trees, employing geometric or trigonometric principles
iceberg a large floating mass of ice detached from a glacier or polar ice cap
ichthyology the branch of zoology that deals with fish, their classification, structure, habits, and life history
IGFA abbreviation for the International Game Fish Association, a group that keeps records on fish catches and supports sport fishing
igneous rock rock formed by the cooling of magma, or molten rock, from within the Earth. Igneous rocks include basalt, lava, and granite.
impoundment a man-made body of water
improvement cut an intermediate cut made to improve the form, quality health, or wildlife potential of the remaining stand
impervious cannot be penetrated
increment borer an instrument used to take core samples to determine the rate of a tree's radial growth and its age
indehiscent fruit with the seeds on the outside like a strawberry; therefore they don't split open when mature
indigenous pertaining to plants or animals that are native to a particular region or country
infiltration the act of permeating a porous area with a liquid or gas
inorganic composed of matter that is not animal or vegetable; not having the organized structure of living things
insecticide chemicals used to kill insects
innate possessed at birth
instinctive actions taken as a result of an inborn pattern of behavior
interaction the relationships of one organism to another; the action of one population affecting the growth or death rate of another population.
interdependencies the interrelationships of wildlife with one another and with the various elements of their environments
interior basin land areas that are generally bowl-shaped and surrounded by hills and mountains. Usually drained by one river system and isolated from ocean influence by mountains and hills
invade to enter, to encroach upon, to spread over into. In wildlife usage, this usually describes when an organism is removed from a community and another organism spreads over into this community
invertebrate animals lacking a backbone. ex. insects, spiders, mollusks, and crustaceans
IPM integrated pest management; a system that can reduce the amount of pesticides applied to crops
irrigate to supply cropland, parks, yards, and so on, with water through the use of diversions, ditches, and pipes
key plant species those plant species that are used to indicate the general condition of a habitat. ex. when plants show overuse, the animals may have exceeded the carrying capacity of the habitat
keystone species a wildlife species whose removal will affect many different plants and animal species ex. a beaver would be a keystone species in a beaver pond
kiln (dry kiln) a structure heated by gas or electricity in which lumber is seasoned artificially or pinecones are dried and opened
knee a round or splice growth rising from the roots of some swamp trees such as bald cypress and tupelo
landfill a specially engineered site for disposing of solid waster on land, designed to confine the refuse to the smallest practical area dan reduce it to the smallest practical volume
late successional describes a species adapted to the later stages of biotic succession
lateral line system a system of sense organs in fish, a series of pores or canals running along a line on each side of the body and on the head; detects pressure changes in the water
leaching the removal of soluble substance from soil by percolating water
legume plants that bear seeds in a pod ex. alfalfa, clover, soybeans, and peas
lichen algae and a fungus growing together in a symbiotic relationship
life cycle the phases, changes, or stages through which an organism passes during its lifetime
limiting factors influences in the life of any animal, population of animals, or species such as: food, water, shelter, space, disease, perdition, climatic condition, population, hunting, preaching and accident. These exceeds the limit of tolerance of that species
litter the number of young born per birthing; the leaves or needles that fall from trees and lie on the ground to decompose and form soil
littoral of or on a shore
loam a type of soil that consists of a mixture of clay, sand, and silt
loess windblown deposit of fine-grained silt or clay
log to cut and deliver tree segments suitable for lumber and other products in segments 8-16 feet in length
log rule or log scale a table based on a diagram or mathematical formula used to estimate volume or product yield from logs and trees.
lop to cut the limbs from a felled tree
lumber timber sawed or split into planks
macrofauna large animals; extremely visible
management in general terms related to wildlife, the intentional manipulation or non-manipulation of habitat and the organisms within the habitat
management, forest the application of business methods and technical forest principles to the operation of a forest stand
manipulate manage or influence to achieve desired results
map a drawing of land or physical features
marginal land land that does not consistently produce a profitable crop because of infertility, drought, or other physical limitations such as shallow soils
marine deposits sediment deposited in oceans
marking the physical process of selecting trees to be cut or left during a harvest
marl a type of bottom under a body of water, a mixture of clay and carbonate of lime
marsh a wetland without trees which often has standing water
mast fruits or nuts used as a food source by wildlife, soft mast includes most fruits with fleshy coverings, such as persimmon, dogwood seed, or black gum seed. Hard mast nuts like acorn, beech, pecan, and hickory
mature tree a tree that has reached a desired size or age for its intended use. Size, age, or economic maturity varies depending on the species and intended use
MBF Abbreviation denoting 1000 board feet. MBF is a typical unit of trade for dimension lumber and saw timber stumpage.
meandering curving; often used to describe rivers and streams in lowlands
merchantable height the stem length, normally measured from he ground to a 10-, 6-, or 4- inch diameter top, above which no other salable product can be cut.
metamorphic rock rock formed when a pre-existing rock is exposed to high heat or pressure or when it undergoes a chemical reaction
methanol alcohol made from wood
microclimate a "small climate" the environmental conditions within a restricted area
microfauna very small animals, barely visible to the eye
microhabitat a small habitat within a larger one in which environmental conditions differ from those in the surrounding area. A hole in a tree trunk or a decaying log is a microhabitat within the forest
microorganism an organism microscopic in size, observable only through a microscope
migration the movement of animals including fish from one area to another
migratory in wildlife usage, birds or other animals which make annual migrations; that is travel distances in the course of seasonal movements.
mineral a naturally occurring inorganic crystalline material found in the Earth's crust
mitigate to make up for to substitute some benefit for losses incurred
mixed forest a forest that includes both coniferous and deciduous trees
misted stand a timber stand in which less than 80% of the trees in the main canopy are of a single species
moldboard plow a type of plow that turns the soil completely upside down, burying all crop remains underneath. Does not leave crop residue on ground surface
monoculture the raising of a crop of a single species, generally even-aged
monoecious unisexual flowers of both sexes, produced on the same plant
Montane zoen the band of vegetation that occurs at intermediate elevations in mountainous regions between foothills and subapine zones
mortality rate the death rate usually expressed in deaths per thousand
mosses small green nonvascular plants
mottled a variegated pattern of color
mucus in fish, a slimy substance that coats the skin and helps protect fish from infection and disease. Also helps them move through the water
mulching to add materials to soil to protect the soil from cold, to reduce evaporation, to control weeds, or to enrich the soil. Ex. sawdust, bark, and leaves
multiple-use a term referring to a system of management in which the same lands and waters are used for a variety of purposes.
multiple-use forestry any practice of forestry fulfilling two ro more objectives of management
multiple-use management the practice of managing forest resources for a variety of benefits including water quality and yield forage, wildlife habitat, wood, recreation, wilderness, and minerals
mutualism a close association between two different species whereby each species derives some benefits. ex. yucca plant and the yucca moth
myceluim the mass of interwoven filaments that forms the vegetative portion of a fungus
mycorrhiza the symbiotic association between the mycelium of a fungus and the roots of certain plants
nares the nostrils in the snoot of a fish, used for smelling
naturalist a specialist who studies and/or teaches about nature
natural resources those raw materials supplied by the Earth and its processes. includes: nutrients, minerals, water, plants, animals, and so on.
natural selection a process in nature resulting in the survival and perpetuation of only those forms of plants and animal life that have certain favorable characteristics that enable them to adapt best to a specific environment
naval stores turpentine and resin derived from the distillation of oleoresins from slash and longleaf pine
needleleaf refers to trees or shrub with narrow, needle-like leaves
niche refers to specific place where an individual organism can live
nitrogen-fixation conversion of elemental nitrogen from the atmosphere to organic combinations or to forms readily useable in biological processes.
nocturnal active by night; the opposite of diurnal
non consumptive use in general terms related to wildlife, any use which does not directly kill wildlife. Ex. most forms of birdwatching, photography, hiking
nongame all wildlife species which are not commonly hunted, r consumed by humans, like songbirds and raptors
nonrenewable resources nonliving resources such as rocks and minerals; resources which do not regenerate themselves
non-point-source pollution pollution that enters water through run-off from farmland, forestland, and urban areas. It can not be determined exactly where this pollution comes from
nuclear fusion nuclear change in which two nuclei of isotopes of elements with a low mass number are forced together at extremely high temperatures until they fuse to form a heavier nucleus.
nutrients chemicals required for plants and animals to grow and exist; a chemical compound required for the life of an organism
nymph a larval phase of an aquatic insect
old growth describes virgin forest or forest with trees over 100 years of age
olfactory nerves involved in the sense of smell
oligotrophic lake type used to describe bodies of water characterized by low amounts of nutrients in proportion to their total volume of water
omnivores organisms that eat both animals and plants
organic referring to or derived from living organisms; in chemistry any compound containing carbon
organic matter chemical compounds of carbon combined with other chemical elements and generally manufactured in the life processes of plant and animals.
organism any form of life
owl pellets regurgitated bones, fur, feathers compacted into a pellet
ozone a form of oxygen that has three atoms to a molecule
pathology the study of the nature of disease and its causes
parasite an organism that lives on or win an organism of another species and derives nutrients from it
parasitic to be a parasite another organism ex. tick on dog, mistletoe growing on a tree
parasitism any relationship in which a consumer organism lives on or in and feeds on a living plant or animals, known as the host. The parasite draws nourishment from it and may gradually weaken its host and kill it.
parent material the earth materials - both mineral and organic - from which soil is formed. These include: minerals and rocks, glacial deposits, bless deposits, alluvial and marine deposits, and organic deposits. Rocks are generally parent material.
Partial cutting tree removal other than by clearcutting
particulate small particles of liquid or solid in matter
passive solar power a solar energy collection system in which natural materials or large stationary absorptive surfaces absorb and temporarily store the heat of the sun.
peat moist, semi-decayed, organic matter
pectoral fins side fins on fish
pedon a three-dimensional soil body depicting the range of characteristics of a given soil
pelagic realting to or living in deep, open water as opposed to along the banks
pelvic fins fins on each side of a fish's belly. These fins aid in positioning and balance.
percolation the downward movement of water in soil; leaching
perennial a plant that lives for several years and, when mature, usually produces seeds each year.
permeability the quality of soil that allows air or water to move through it
perpetual resource a resource such as solar energy that is virtually inexhaustible on a human time scale
pest an undesirable, harmful or noxious organism
pesticide an agent to control undesirable organisms. This can be an insecticide for insect control, herbicide for weed control, a fungicide for control of fungal plant diseases, or a rodenticide for killing rats and mice
pH the hydrogen-ion activity, used in expressing both acidity and alkalinity on a scale whose values rage from 0-14, with 7 representing neutrality.
pheromones a chemical secreted by an animal or insect that influences the behavior or development of others of the same species.
phloem the plant tissue that transports dissolved nutrients from the leaves to the other parts of the plant
phosphate a chemical compound that aids root growth and is essential in energy transfer. It is commonly incorporated into beds as triple super phosphate at time of planting
photosynthesis complex process that takes place in cells of green plants. Radiant energy from the sun is used to combine carbon dioxide and water to produce oxygen and carbohydrates and other nutrient molecules
phytoplankton microscopic floating and suspended aquatic plants. Phytoplankton are the first step of the food chain in many aquatic systems.
pigment a chemical substance that reflects and transmits only certain light rays and thus imparts color to an object
pioneer species an organism capable of growing on bare sites and persisting there until supplanted by successor species
pith soft, spongy center of the stem of most flowering plants
plant communities an association of plants, each occupying a certain position or ecological niche, inhabiting a common environment and interacting
plankton organisms suspended in an aquatic habitat that control their own movements. Plankton are usually microscopic and include bacteria, algae, protozoan, rotifers, larvae, and small crustaceans. Phytoplankton are plant plankton; zooplankton are the animal
plantation a forest established by planting seeds or seedlings
plateau an elevated, relatively level, expanse of land
platy related to or being soil or minerals that occur in flaky layers
playa the level area at the bottom of a basin that is often covered with water from rain runoff and snow melt
plywood an assembled product constructed of three or more layers of veneer joined with glue and usually laid with the grain of adjoining plies at right angles to one another
point source pollution pollution that comes from a specific place such as a drain or pipes, factory, etc
pore spaces, pores the area of the soil through which water and air move. The space between soil particles
porous admitting the passage of gas or liquids through pores
precipitation rain, snow, and other forms of water that fall to earth
predator an animal that hunts or captures other animals for food
prescribed burn the planned burning of a forest, stand, prairie, or slash pile with the intent to confine the burning to a predetermined area
presuppression step in preventing forest fires, includes weather prediction, detect, and planning
prey animals that are killed and eaten by other animals
primary producers green plants that are able to manufacture food from simple organic substance
prismatic of, relating to, or being a prism
producers organisms that synthesize organic compounds from inorganic substances by way of photosynthesis
productivity the amount of crops or animals that can be harvested from land. It can also mean the general amount of goods made in a given time or in a given area
profundal zone of water at the bottom of deep, open water
propane a heavy, flammable, gaseous, paraffin hydrocarbon found in crude petroleum and natural gas; used especially as fuel and in chemical synthesis
protoplasm the complex of protein, other organic, and inorganic substances, and water that constitutes the living nucleus, cytoplasm, plastids, and mitochondria of a cell
public land land owned by the citizens and administered and managed by the local, state, or federal government agencies
pulp fibrous material prepared from wood, recovered paper, cotton, grasses, etc. by chemical or mechanical processes for use in making paper or cellulose products
pulpwood timber that is cut and made into pulp for paper and other products
pure stand a timber stand in which at least 75% of the trees in the main crown canopy are of a single species
radon an odorless, colorless gas produced naturally from the radioactive decay of radium-226. Radio breaks down into several radioactive parts which can attach to large particles in the air. Can cause lung cancer
rain shadow the area on the leeward side of a mountain barrier that receives little rainfall
range the land where animals live; an area grazed by livestock and/or wildlife
range land an open region of lands that produce grasses and other forms of vegetation on which organisms can feed. Two common types of range land are pasture and open range.
raptor eagles, hawks, owls, and other birds that are predators
rare referring to wildlife species not presently in danger but of concern because of its low numbers
rare species species that populate a site or region infrequently, or in very low numbers. Rare species are not necessary endangered
recreation entertainment, frequently implying activity in the out-of-doors
recycle the salvage and reprocessing of used materials
redd a nest dug on the bottom of a body of water by spawning trout
reforestation reestablishing a forest by planning or seeding an area from which forest vegetation has been removed
regeneration cut a cutting strategy in which old trees are removed while favorable environmental conditions are maintained for the establishment of a new stand of seedlings
reintroduction of species a wildlife management technique where a species is reintroduced into their historic range; the repopulation of animals in areas where they have become extinct
regenerate to replace lost or damaged parts with new tissue
renewable resource a resource that has the capacity to be replaced through natural processes ex trees
rejuvenate to stimulate and return to youthful health and vigor
resident wildlife animals which are residents to a specific area on a year-round basis as opposed to migratory
residual stand trees left in a stand to grow until the next harvest
residium rock that is altered wither chemically or physically but not moved form its place of origin
resource portions of an environment upon which people have placed or assigned value or see asa being available for use
respiration an energy-yielding oxidation process that goes on in living plants and animals; an exchange of gasses
rill a type of erosion
ring, annual any yearly growth layer as viewed on the cross-section of a stem, branch, or root
riparian on or near the bank of water areas. The land area and plants that are influenced by the adjacent water
rock a complex mineral aggregate
root collar the transition zone between stem and root at the ground line of a tree or seedling
root hairs a filamentous outgrowth near the tip of a rootlet that absorbs water and minerals
rootlet a small root
rotation the planned number of years between the formation of a crop and its final cutting at a specified stage of maturity
row crops agricultural crops, such as corn and soybeans, that are grown in rows
runoff water fresh water from precipitation and melting ice that flows on the ground into nearby streams, lakes, wetlands, and reservoirs
salinity level of salt in a given substance
saltwater water with salt in it, such asa in an ocean or sea
salvage cut the harvesting of dead or damaged trees or of trees in danger of being killed by insects, disease, flooding, or other factors in order to save their economic value
sand loose soil made up of small rock particles
sapling a young tree, less than 4 inches dbh (diameter breast height). The minimum size of saplings is usually placed at 2 inches
sapwood the younger, softer, living or physiologically active outer portion of a tree's wood that lies between the cambium and the heartwood. The sapwood is more permeable, less durable, and usually lighter in color than the heartwood.
sawlog or sawtimber a log or tree that is large enough to be sawed into lumber, minimum log length is typically 8 feet
scale one of the small covering plates on the body of many fish
scarifying for soil: the removal of the top litter layer of an area for site preparation. For seed: the abrasion or weakening of the seed coat to encourage germination
scat another name for animal droppings or excrement
scavenger
scrub low, woody vegetation composed principally of shrubs
school a number of fish of the same species that are grouped together
secondary succession the sequential development of communities in an area in which natural vegetation has been removed or destroyed, but the soil was not destroyed
secluded removed or screened from view of other areas and disturbances
sedges grass-like plants with solid stems and leaves that grow in threes
sediment the matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid
sedimentary rock rock that is formed by the accumulation of sediments that are compacted and solidified by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions
sedimentation the deposition or accumulation of sediment
seedling a young tree grown from a seed to a small sapling
seed tree a tree left behind when a stand is harvested or partially cleared to provide a source of seed for the species desired to be renewed
seed tree cut a harvesting method in which a few scattered trees are left behind to provide a source of seed
selective cutting the cutting of intermediate-aged, mature, or diseased trees in an uneven-aged forest stand, either singly or in small groups. This encourages the growth of younger trees and maintains an uneven-aged stand
selective harvesting the removal of individual or small clusters of trees to manage a forest stand so that it has a mixture of age classes and products
sere the series of communities that follow one another in a natural succession, as in the change from a bare field to a mature forest.
serotinous a pinecone or other seed case that requires heat from a fire to open and release the seed
shearing slicing or cutting trees or stumps at the ground line. Shearing may be done at harvest or with a KG blade during site preparation
shelterbelt (windbreak) a row of trees and shrubs planted along the edge of a cultivated field to limit soil erosion caused by wind
shelterwood cut the removal of the understory of a forest so that younger saplings can grow in the shade of older and larger trees
shrub plants with woody stems that are usually less than 12 feet tall. Shrubs often have many main stems rather than one main stem
slit very fine particles soil often transported by water and deposited as sediment
silviculture the science and art of cultivating forest crops according to a study of the life history and general characteristics of forest trees
single-tree selection harvesting single trees in a forest stand
site index a relative measure of forest site quality based on the height of the dominant trees at a specific age
site preparation preparing an area of land for planting, direct seedling or natural reproduction by burning, by chemical vegetation control, or by mechanical operations such as disking, bedding, scarifying, wind-rowing, or raking
slash the residue left on the ground after trees are harvested
slope the degree to which the land surface is incline
sloughs a swampy place or marshy inlet
smog originally a combination of smoke and fog, now also applied to the photochemical haze produced by the action of the sun and the atmosphere on automobile and industrial exhausts
snag a standing dead tree.
softwood trees usually refers to coniferous trees
soil compaction the compression of soil to a smaller volume
soil texture the feel or composition of the soil as determined by the size of the soil particles
soil type soil that are alike in all characteristics, including texture of the topsoil.
solar energy heat from the sun that can be used to do work
solid waste discarded solid materiais, excluding recovered materials
spawn the act of releasing eggs into the water by female fish for fertilization by male fish
spawning run the movement of fish to an area for the purpose of spawning
species animals and plants that are the same and successfully reproduce the same kind of plant or animal: a category of biological ranking just below the genus or subgenus category.
species diversity the number of different species and their relative abundance in a given area
springwood the less dense, larger-celled, first-formed part of a growth layer
sport fishing fishing for recreation, not for profit or commercial reason
stagnant sluggish, not producing to potential
stand an easily defined are of the forest that is relatively uniform inspects composition or age and can be managed as a single unit
stewardship the concept of responsible care taking is based on the premise that we do not own resources but are mangers of resources and are responsible to future generations for their condition
stewardship forest a privately owned forest tract that exhibits integrated forest management to protect and enhance wildlife, timber, recreation, natural beauty, and soil and water quality
Stewardship Incentive Program (SIP) a cost-sharing program available to forest landowners who have a multi-resource forest stewardship plan. Practices include cost-sharing assistance for the enhancement of forest recreation, fisheries, wildlife, and timber production and the protection
stoma a small opening found in the epidermal layer of plants that allows; access for carbon dioxide; the release of water; and the release of oxygen. They are surrounded by guard cells that control the opening size.
stratification, forest the various layers of trees in a forest from the upper layer (canopy) to saplings, seedlings, and small herbaceous plants.
Streamside Management Zone (SMZ) An area adjacent to a stream where vegetation is maintained or managed to protect water quality. The width depends on slope, but 50 ft is the normal minimum. Trees may be removed from SMZ asa long as the stream bed is not disrupted and sufficient
subclimax a stage in succession that is short of the climax stage, but in which further development is inhibited by some factor(s) other than climate
succession the natural sequence of plant community replacement; beginning with bare ground and resulting in a final, stable community in which a climax forest is reached.
successional disking or mowing a wildlife-enhancement practice in which a disk harrow or rotary mower is used to knock down existing vegetation every 1 to 3 years to promote the regrowth of annuals, legumes, forbes, and perennials.
successional stage a distinguishable stage in the process of succession
sustainable forestry managing forest to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This is done by practicing a land stewardship ethic that integrates the reforestation, managing, growing, nurturing and harve
sustained yield the rate at which a resource may be used without reducing its long-term availability or limiting its ability to renew itself
summerwood the denser, smaller-celled, later-formed part of a growth layer
suppression containing a fire by robbing the fire of fuels, lowering temperature, or cutting off the oxygen
swamp a wetland dominated by trees
symbiosis the living together in close association of two or more dissimilar organisms; includes parasitism, mutualism, and neutralism.
succulent having thick fleshy leaves that conserve moisture
taproot the main rot of a tree that strikes downward with or without heavy branding until it either reaches an impenetrable layer or one so lacking in oxygen or moisture that further downward growth is impossible
temperate forest a forest with moderate year-round temperatures and district seasons that are characterized by both broadleaf evergreens and conifers. Characteristic trees of a temperature forest include; oaks, magnolias, and royal palms
terrain the character or topography of the land
territory an area used for breeding, feeding or both, which is defended by an animal against others of the same species.
thin to reduce the number of trees in a stand
threatened species a species that, in nature, is abundant, but because of a decline in its numbers, may become endangered
tillage cultivation of land
timber a forest stand containing trees of commercial size and quality suitable for sawing into lumber
timber cruise the process of determining estimates of timber volume, growth, stand density, and other kinds of information on a forest property
timberland forest that are capable of growing 20 cubic fee per acre per year of commercial wood
timberline the upper limit of tree growth on mountains
tissue a group of cells, usually a particular kind of cells, that function together and form the structural material in an organism
tolerant species a species of tree that has the ability to grow in the shade of other trees and in competition with them
transitional
transpiration vapor water lost or given off by land plants
tree a plant that is usually more than 12 feet tall and has a single main woody stem with a distinct crown of leaves
tree farm a privately owned woodland where sustainable forest management is the primary objective.
turbid having sediment or foreign particles stirred up or suspended; muddy
understory the layer formed by the crowns of smaller trees in a forest
undulating a regular rising and falling or side-to-side motion
uneven-aged stand a forest area composed of intermingling trees of markedly different ages
urban forestry a specialized branch of forestry that has as its objective the cultivation and management of trees for their contribution to the physiological, social and economic well being of urban activity
valley
vegetation the mass of plants that cover a given area
vegetative reproduction an asexual means of propagating new plants through root shoots, bulbs, leaf cutting or underground stems
vertical vegetation zones the belt of distinctive plant cover in mountainous regions resulting from climatic changes related to elevation changes
vigor in plants and animals, refers to the capacity for strong growth and high survival
VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) A "naturally" derived compound which can cause serious environmental and health threats when found in high concentrations or used in poorly ventilated areas. VOC can be found in household cleaners, paints, wood finishes, and pesticides.
waste stream, solid discarded solid materials, excluding recovered materials
waste water water that runs off cropland during irrigation
watershed the land area where all rain drains into a body of water - delivering both runoff water and sediment to a major river or stream and its tributaries
wedge prism a type of angle gauge made of glass that bends light that lets a forester determine which trees should be counted or tabulated in a forest sample and which should not. Prism may also be used for timber cruising, for locating points at a desired distance
wetland an area that is regularly wet or flooded where the water table stands at or above the land surface for at least part of the year. Wetland plant communities are made up of species that require hydric soils
wilderness an area that has never been developed by humans
wilderness area an area established by the federal government to be managed and preserved in an essentially untouched condition. Wilderness areas are open to some recreational activities. Machinery, mining, logging, and other commercial pursuits are not allowed.
wildfire any fire other than a controlled or prescribed burn occurring on wild land
wildlife a loose term that includes nondomesticated animals, especially mammals, birds, and fish
wildlife management the application of scientific knowledge and technical skills to protect, preserve, conserve, limit, enhance, or extend the value of wildlife and its habitat
wind energy power harnessed from the wind by the use of windmills or turbines
windrow a long, narrow row of vegetation, debris, and some soil created during site preparation and clearing operations
windthrow trees uprooted by excessive wind. Shallow-rooted trees are almost always affected
woodlands (open forest) a wooded area in which the crowns of the trees do not form a closed canopy
xylem the complex woody tissue of higher plants that includes systems for transporting water, storing nutrients, and supporting the plant's structure
yard up to gather in a sheltered area in winter; used typically in reference to deer, moose, and similar animal populations
zero population growth maintaining population numbers at a fixed level resulting in no increase in population
zone an area composed of groups of tree species having the same specific moisture and nutrient requirements for growth
zoologist a specialist who studies the animal kingdom with respect to the behavior of individual animals, species, or both
zooplankton plankton that consists of animals including coral, sea anemones, and jellyfish
Abney level a surveying instrument désigné to measure angles of elevation or depression.
acid substances with a pH of less than 7
active solar power a solar energy collection system in which water, air, or another heat-absorbing fluid is actively pumped through a solar collector.
adipose fin the fatty fin on some species of fish, such as catfish and bullheads
aestivation dormancy, typically seasonal
afforestation the establishment of a forest on an area not previously forested
age, rotation the age at which a tree stand is considered ready for harvesting under the adopted plan of management
air quality a gauge of the concentration of one or more chemicals in the atmosphere that could potentially be harmful to humans, other animals, vegetation, or materials
algae any of numerous chlorophyll-containing plants of the phylum Thallophyte, ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms infers or salt water
alidade an instrument used in fire towers to locate forest fires. The alidade is equipped with sights for determining the direction of a fire
all-aged applies to a stand of trees where (theoretically) trees of all ages are found
allantois part of an egg that receives waste from the embryo
amnion a thin, fluid-like sack that encloses the embryo in an egg
anadromous any species of fish that lives in salt water and spawns in freshwater. some examples are salmon, shad, and striped bass.
anal fin the fin found on the lower portion of a fish's body near the tail
angiosperm any class of flowering plants characterized by seeds that are fully enclosed by fruits
arboreal pertaining to or like a tree; adapted to living in trees
arid dry; receives list precipitation
aquifer a geological formation that is permeable; a water-bearing layer of rock or soil.
bauxite a mineral composed of 45-60% aluminum, making it the primary source of this versatile metal.
benthic having to do with the ecosystem at the bottom of a lake
biennial a plant that lives for two growing season, producing foliage during the first season and flowers, fruit, and seeds during the second
Biltmore stick an instrument used for measuring the diameter of a tree, height of a tree, and diameter of a log.
bioaccumulation the build-up of chemicals in a plant or animal.
bog a wetland formed in a former glacial depression by the accumulation of organic matter, known as peat, and which supports mosses tolerant of acidic conditions
bole the main trunk of a tree
botanist a specialist in the study of plants
bottomlands a forest area near a stream, river, or other moving body of water. Bottomlands are subject to periodic flooding usually have wetland hardwood species
brackish the water in the area where fresh and salt water meet; often has varying salinity but is saltier than fresh water
bromeliad a member of a family of tropical American and epiphytic herbaceous plants that includes the pineapple and various other ornamentals
cacti plants that have adapted to dry conditions; cactus have small leaves and thorns and can store after in leaves and other parts of the plant
caliper, tree an instrument used to measure diameters of trees or logs. The tree caliper is a graduated rule with two arms, one fixed at right angles to one end of the rule and the other sliding parallel to the fixed arm
carrion the bodies of dead animals, usually found in nature int he process of decay; to "fresh meat"
cast to regurgitate indigestible prey remains
catadromous any species of fish that lives in freshwater and spawns in saltwater, such as the eel
caudal related to or being the tail; the tail fin
chart a "map" of water areas showing water depths for the shorelines, reefs, rocks, shoals, wrecks, and other areas of dangers
chip-n-saw a cutting method used in cutting lumber from trees that measure between 6 and 14 inches diameter at breast height. The process chips off the rounded outer layer of a log before sawing the remaining part into lumber
chorion the outer membrane enclosing the embryo in reptiles, birds, and mammals
chromatography a method of analyzing materials of various compounds by testing their absorption rates
clay fine-grained soil with particles less than .002 millimeters; plastic when wet, but hardens when dry
columner having the shape of a column
combustion an oxidative chemical process that results in the creation of heat and light
compound leaf a leaf that is subdivided into many leaflets. A leaf that is comprised of a single leaf blade is a simple leaf.
cone a structure composed of many spirally-arranged scales in which pollen ovules are produced
contour farming plowing along the contour lines of uneven terrain to help prevent erosion
conventional crude the viscous liquid drilled and pumped from underground oil deposits, or reserves. After the crude oil has been extracted, it is sent to a refinery for processing into gasoline, heating oil, and other petroleum products.
conventional natural gas underground deposits of gases that are associated with crude oil deposits.
conventional nuclear fission the process by which the nucleus of a heavy element is split into lighter nuclei, resulting in the release of a large amount of heat. This heat is then used to power a turbine that generates electrical energy
cord a volume measure of stacked wood.
core sample a small section removed from the trunk of a tree that allows foresters to determine the age of the tree without killing the tree
cove a small bay or inlet in a body of water
covey a small flock or group often a family group of birds such as quail
creel limit a term to indicate the number of fish, by species that can be legally caught in one day
creosote, wood-tar distillate oil derived from wood tear and produced as a by-product in the destructive distillation of either hardwoods or softwoods
crown-sprout the ability of some plants to regrow after plant material above ground is removed by fire or other disturbances
cull a tree or log of marketable size that is useless for all but firewood or pulpwood because of crookedness, rot, injuries, or damage from disease or insects
cunit a stack of logs containing 100 cubic feet
cutting the name given to the type of harvesting system - clear cutting, seed tree, selection, and shelter wood
DDT a colorless contact insecticide which was banned in the US in 1972
decibel a unit of intensity of sound a measurement of 50 decibels is considered moderate sound
defoliation the removal of leaves or needles from trees or plants usually caused by insects, diseases, or chemicals and often causing mild to severe damage
dehiscent fruits with their seeds inside that spill out when the outer layer is ruptured
detritus disintegrated material or debris; loose fragments washed away from rocks
denitrification to remove nitrogen or nitrogen-containing gases
densimeter a device used for measuring the density of the canopy cover
depredation the act of preying upon usually in relation wildlife damage to people's crops or animals
desert scrub arid environments with irregular winter rainfall, summer rainfall, or bi-seasonal rainfall and highly varied plant life that includes leafless, drought deciduous, or evergreen species of trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses, yuccas, agaves, and cacti
detrimental having harmful effects
dioecious male and female flowers produced on separate plants
direct or broadcast seeding sowing seed for broad coverage from the air or on the ground
dissolved oxygen the oxygen mixed into water and used by fish.
display an observable behavioral pattern that carries a specific message.
dorsal fin a fin located on the back or upper-most part of a fish
DNR (Department of Natural Resources) natural resources agency in many states
early successional describes a species adapted to the beginning or early stages of biotic succession.
ecological islands small spaces of wildlife and plant habitat remaining when land is cleared for farming or urban development
echosphere a term for the total of all the regions on the earth capable of supporting life
ecotone a land area where two different succession layers come together; edge good wildlife habitat
edaphic realting to soil
edge effect the tendency of wildlife to use the areas where two different vegetative types come together forming an edge; where rabbits concentrate in an area where brush land and meadow land meet because of the diversity of food, shelter, etc
edge habitat the transition zone between two different habitat types
effluent the outflows from sewage or industrial plants
emergent a tree that grows above the general level of the forest canopy. In ecology, a plant which emerges from the water to grow in wetlands
endemic pertaining to a population that is restricted to a particular geographic area
epilimnion the warm layer of water above the thermocline
epiphyte a plant that grows on the surface of another plant but is not a parasite since it gets its nourishment from the air
ethanol a grain alcohol produced by fermentation or the anaerobic digestion of plant materials with a high sugar content
ethnobotany the study of the relationship between societies and the plants of their environment
ethics a personal or social moral code
even-aged management a forest management method in which all trees in an area are harvested at one time or in several cuttings over a short time to produce stands that are all the same age or nearly so.
evergreen plants that do not lose their leaves during the winter. These are usually conifer trees but some, such as the live oak, are broadleaf trees.
exclusion keeping something out of an area
famine an extreme shortage of food in a given area
feldspars the most abundant group of minerals in the earth's crust
fire triangle the three components necessary for a fire to burn-heat, fuel, and oxygen
firebreak any nonflammable barrier used to slow or stop fires. Several types of firebreaks are mineral soil barriers; barriers of green, slow-burning vegetation and mechanically cleared areas
fisheries management the science of management of fish populations through research, habitat manipulation, stocking, water quality control, and regulations
flat or straight planting planting trees directly into the ground without beds or , in some cases, without first moving logging debris
fluctuate to vary; or rise and fall irregularly
flyway fly routes establish by migratory birds
fossil fuel coal, oil, and other energy sources that formed over millions of years from the remains of ancient plants and animals.
fusiform rust a disease resulting in a canker or swollen area on the limbs of trunks of pine trees from orange spores produced by infected oak leaves
generalists species that have broad adaptability; more likely to survive changes in habitat
geothermal energy heat transferred from the earth's interior to underground concentrations of water trapped in fractured or porous rock to form steam or hot water
glaciation the action of huge masses of moving ice formed from compacted snow
grazer a herbaceous organism that consumes primarily grasses
gross national product total market value in current dollars of all goods and services produced by a country's economy for final use during a year
herbicide chemicals used to control the growth of plants
high-grading a harvesting technique that removes only the biggest and most valuable trees from a forest stand
hormones a substance produced by one tissue and conveyed by the bloodstream to another to affect physiological activity like growth
horticulture
hunting pressure the numbers, amount, or concentration of hunters in a specific area and upon a specific animal
hydropower electric energy produced by falling or flowing water
IGFA (International Game Fish Association) a group that keeps records oafish catches and supports sport fishing
impoundment a man-made body of water
impervious cannot be penetrated
indehiscent fruit with the seeds on the outside like a strawberry, therefore they don't split open when mature
indigenous pertaining to plants or animals that are native to a particular region or country
instinctive actions taken as a result of an inbox pattern of behavior
interdependencies the interrelationships of wildlife with one another and with the various elements of their environments
invade to enter, to encroach upon, to spread over into. In wildlife usage this usually describes when an organism is removed from a community and another organism spreads over into this community
IPM (Integrated Pest Management) a system that can reduce the amount of pesticides applied to crops
late successional describes a species adapted to the later stages of biotic succession
lichen algae and a fungus growing together in a symbiotic relationship
loam a type of soil that consists of a mixture of clay, sand and silt
lop to cut the limbs from a felled tree
marine deposits sediment deposited in oceans
mari a type of bottom under a body of water; a mixture of clay and carbonate of lime
marsh a wetland without trees which often has standing water
mast fruits or nuts used as food source by wildlife.
methanol alcohol made from wood
microclimate a "small climate" the environmental conditions within a restricted area
mineral a naturally occurring inorganic crystalline material found in the Earth's crust
monoculture the raising of a crop of a single species, generally even-aged
monoecious unisexual flowers of both sexes, produced on the same point
Montane zone the band of vegetation that occurs at intermediate elevations mountainous regions between foothills and subapine zones
mosses small green nonvascular plants
mottled a variegated pattern of color
mutualism a close association between two different species whereby each species derives some benefits
mycorrhiza the symbiotic association between the mycelium of a fungus and the roots of certain plants
nares the nostrils in the snoot of a fish, used for smelling
naval stores turpentine and resin derived from the distillation of oleoresins from slash and longleaf pine
needleleaf refers to a tree or shrub with narrow needle-like leaves
nongame all wildlife species which are not commonly hunted
nymph a larval phase of an aquatic insect
old growth describes virgin forest or forest with trees over 100 years old
oligotrophic lake type used to describe bodies of water characterized by low amounts of nutrients in proportion to their total volume of water
pathology the study of the nature of disease and its causes
particulate small particles of liquid or solid in matter
pectoral fins side fins on fish
pedon a 3 dimensional soil body depicting the range of characteristics of a given soil
pelagic realting to or living in deep, open water as opposed to along the banks
pelvic fins fins on each side of a fish's belly
phloem the plant tissue that transports dissolved nutrients from the leaves to the other parts of the plant
platy related to or being soil or minerals that occur in flaky layers
playa the level area at the bottom of a sin that is often covered with water from rain runoff and snow melt
plywood an assembled product constructed of three or more layers of veneer joined with glue and usually laid with the grain of adjoining plies at right angles to one another.
presuppression step in preventing forest fires, includes weather prediction, detection, and planning
profundal zone of water at the bottom of deep, open wter
propane a heavy, flammable, gaseous, paraffin hydrocarbon found in crude petroleum and natural gas; used especially as fuel and in chemical synthesis
protoplasm the complex of protein, other organic and inorganic substances, and water that constitutes shelving nucleus, cytoplasm, plastids, and mitochondria of a cell
pure stand
reintroduction of species a wildlife management technique where a species is reintroduced into their historic range; the repopulation of animals in areas where they have become extinct
regeneration cut a cutting strategy in which old trees are removed while favorable environmental conditions are maintained for the establishment of a new stand of seedlings
resident wildlife animals which are residents to a specific area on a year-round basis as opposed to migratory
residual stand trees left in a stand to grow until the next harvest
residium rock that is altered either chemically or physically but not moved formats place of origin
root collar the transition zone between stem and root at the ground line of a tree or seedling
root hairs a filamentous outgrowth near the tip of a rootlet that absorbs water and minerals
row crops agricultural crops,such as corn and soybeans, that are grown in rows
salvage cut the harvesting of dead or damaged trees or trees in danger of being killed by insects, disease, flooding or other factors ignorer to save their economic value
scale one of the small covering plates on the body of many fish
scarifying for soil: the removal of the top litter layer of an are for site preparation
school a number of fish of the same species that are grouped together
secondary succession the sequential development of communities in an area in which natural vegetation has been removed or destroyed, but the soil was not destroyed
secluded removed or screened from view of other areas and disturbances
sedges grass-like plants with solid stems and leaves that grow in threes
sedimentary rock rock that is formed by the accumulation sediments that are compacted and solidified by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions
sedimentation the deposition or accumulation of sediment
seed tree a tree left behind when a stand is harvested or partially cleared to provide a source of seed for the species desired to be renewed
seed tree cut a harvesting method in which a few scattered trees are left behind to provide a source of seed
sere the series of communities that follow one another in a natural succession as in the change from a bare field to a mature forest
serotinous a pinecone or other seed case that requires heat from a fire to open and release the seed
soil compaction the compression of soil to a smaller volume
smog originally a combination of smoke and fog now also applied to the photochemical haze produced by the action of the sun and the atmosphere on automobile and industrial exhausts
slash the residue left on the ground after trees are harvested
suppression containing a fire by robbing the fire of fuels, lowering temperature, or cutting off the oxygen
swamp a wetland dominated by trees
succulent having thick fleshy leaves that conserve moisture
taproot the main root of a tree that strikes downward with or without heavy branching until it either reaches an impenetrable layer or one so lacking in oxygen or moisture that further downward growth is impossible
temperate forest a forest with moderate year-round temperatures and distinct seasons that are characterized by both broadleaf evergreens and conifers.
threatened species a species that, in nature is abundant but because of a decline in its numbers may become endangered
tolerant species a species of tree that has the ability to grow in the shade of other trees and in competition with them
transpiration vapor water lost or given off by land plants
Created by: sfowle