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Chapter 6

properties of water

Covalent bonds (Molecular bonds) a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. They hold water molecules together
How are covalent bonds formed? they form when electrons are shared between atoms
What makes a water molecule electrically asymmetrical? Angular Shape
water molecules have: a positive (+) and a negative (-) end
Why is water polar? because it behaves like a magnet
What allows water to easily dissolve? Waters polarity
How does water polarity do its thing? by attracting the opposite charge in other compounds and separating it into it component elements
Which particle ends attract which? The (+) end attracts the (-) end and vice versa
What does waters polar nature permit? it allows the attraction other water molecules
Hydrogen Bond the attraction between the hydrogen of one water molecule and the oxygen on another
Waters ability to form multiple hydrogen bonds accounts for many of its special properties Such as: Cohesion, Adhesion, and water blue color
Cohesion allows individual water moleules to stick to each other
Surface Tension a surface skin capable of supporting needles, paper clips, and walking insects Cohesion accounts for water high surface tension
What does Cohesion explain? why water droplets bead together on a smooth surface
Adehsion the tendency of water to stick to other material enables water to adhere to other solids or make them wet
H2O/glass is stronger than cohesive forces between H2O molecules
capillary action the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or even in opposition to, external forces like gravity.
Heat energy produced by the random vibrations of atoms or molecules
Heat is the measure of how many are vibrating and how fast they are vibrating
Temperature records only how fast the molecules are vibrating its an object response to an input or removal of heat
Heat capcity a measure of the heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1c not all substances respond to identical inputs of heat by rising in temperature the same # of degrees
waters heat capacity exceptionally high, it resists changing temperatures
ammonia the only substance to have a higher heat capacity than water
linear temperature density relationship most substances become progressively denser as they get colder
water is unique
upon cooling, water becomes denser, slows, becomes slightly less dense as cooling continues, and starts to freeze
through transition from water to ice density decreases abruptly this is why ice floats
why does the density of water decrease as it approaches its freezing point? because the hydrogen bonds become more rigid, causing them to become wider (hexagonal pattern), and expand
sensible heat can be sensed by a temperature change measurable on a thermometer
non sensible heat known as latent latent applies to heat input that does not cause a temperature change but does produce a cange of state (as from liquid to gas or vice versa)
thermal inertia waters tendency to resist change is temperature
the ocean does not boil or freeze solid because heat is transported by oceanic and atmosphere circulation from the tropics to the poles
Movements of water vapors: the sun heats the ocean causing it to evaporate new water vapor is then used in cloud formation water vapor turns into rain usually at a distance from initial evaporation ex: ocean surface evaporates near cuba, H2O vapor is moved by winds to canada, the same H2O condenses in a rainstorm a week later
density of seawater is affected by temperature, salinity, and pressure
density increases with increasing salinity, increasing pressure, and decreasing temperature
surface zone the upper layer of the ocean, containing the least dense water the surface zone is only about 2% of total ocean volume
pycnocline a zone in which density increases with depth, containing about 18% of all ocean water
deep zone contains about 80% of all ocean water there is little change in density throughout this layer
surface zone consists of water in contact with the atmosphere and exposed to sunlight it contains the oceans least dense water
pycnocline zone protects deep water from surface circulation so that they are not affected by surface condition
deep zone consists of cold, dense water, about 80% of total ocean volume
pycnocline zone in which density increases with depth it consists of: thermocline, where density increase is due to a decrease in temperature halocline, where the density increase is due to an increase in salinity
sound and light both travel in waves: refraction- the bending of waves, which occurs when waves travel from one medium to another refractive index, a ratio that expresses how much light is refracted from one medium to another
refraction index of seawater greater than freshwater
salinity increases so does the refraction incdex
sunlight does not travel well in the ocean
How are compounds formed? When there are 2 or more elements contained in a molecule Water (H2O) and Carbon Dioxide (C02) ~ Compounds
latent heat of fusion allows ice to absorb large amounts of heat when it begins melting without changing in temperature only after all the ice has melted will the temperature change this is why ice is so effective at cooling drinks
latent heat of vaporization refers to the amount of heat energy required to break the hydrogen bonds that keep water in liquid state, allowing it to go into the gas state water has the highest L.H.V of any known substance
Created by: loneblackwolf