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Pediatric Nursing

Module 1 & 2

QuestionAnswer
What refers to an increase in size of the whole or its parts? Growth
What refers to function and the gradual process of change and differentiation, from simple to complex? Development
What proceeds from the head toward the feet? Cephalocaudal
What originates in the center and moves towards the outside? Proximodistal
Prenatal Conception to birth
Newborn (neonate) Birth to 4 weeks
Infant 4 weeks to 1 year
Toddler 1-3 years
Preschool 3-6 years
School Age 6-12 years
Adolescence 12-21 years
What doubles by 5-6 months and triples by 1 year? Birth weight
What area of young children is far greater in relation to body weight than that of an adult? Body Surface area
What makes it possible to compare the measurement for any one child with those of other children of the same age, gender, and race? Standards
What is used to estimate a healthy body weight for an individual base on height and to indirectly measure body fat percentage to determine obesity or underweight status? BMI - Body Mass Index
What is the formula for figuring BMI [weight(pounds)/(height x height)(inches)] x 703
What has bearing on development? Ordinal position; whether a child is first, middle, or last
What are influenced by the prenatal environment? Newborns
Who created Hierarchy of Needs? Maslow
What must be met before higher ones can be met? Lower levels on hierarchy of needs
Who created Stages of Psychosocial Development? Erickson
Trust vs. Mistrust Infancy (birth-1yr)
Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Toddler (1-3yr)
Initiative vs. Guilt Preschool (3-6yr)
Industry vs. Inferiority School Age (6-12yr)
Identity vs. Role Diffusion/Confusion Adolescence (12-21yr)
What is a good activity for a 7 year old? Puzzle
Who created Stages of Cognitive Development? Piaget
Sensorimotor Birth-2yr
Preoperational 2-7yr
Perceptual 4-7yr
Concrete Operations 7-11yr
Formal Operational 11-16yr
Who created Stages of Moral Development Kohlberg
What is the business of children? Play
Play is important for learning and helps develops what? Physical growth, cognitive growth, emotional growth, social growth, and self awareness
Who is the advocate, educator, and collaborator in a family-centered care environment? Nurse
How do you introduce new foods to an infant to determine if there is an allergy? One at a time, 4-7 days apart
Who's decision is it to bottle or breast feed? Mother's
What is the s/s for overfeeding? Regurgitation, mild diarrhea, and too rapid weight gain
What is the s/s for underfeeding? Restlessness, crying, and failure to gain weight
What is the first solid food introduced by 6 months? Rice cereal
When do you introduce whole milk? Not prior to 1 year
Why can't you introduce low fat milk prior to age 2? Fats are needed to complete neurological development
What is the best way to figure portion size? 1tbsp/year of age
What foods may cause choking? Popcorn, nuts, chunks of meat, whole grapes, hot dogs
When does the posterior fontanelle close? 2 months
When does the anterior fontanelle close? 18 months
What type of contact spreads from person to person? Direct
What follows growth spurts? Plateaus
True or False: The metabolic rate is energy utilization and oxygen consumption True
Lines of communication and partnership in the family Partnership
How responsibilities for growth and development of child are shared? Growth
Overt and covert emotional interactions among family members Affection
How the family helps and shares resources Adaptation
How time, money, and some space allocated to prevent and solve problems Resolve
What vaccines does a pre-kindergarten 5 yr old receive? Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR)
During which stage is a disease contagious? Incubation period
When should a nurse question the order of DTaP? When the child had a high fever after previous DTaP
What happens when a vaccination series is interrupted? Can usually continue without restarting series
What is the most appropriate response from a nurse to a child who has been physically abused by a family member? It's not your fault that this happened
Children whose growth rate necessitates further investigation include who? Children whose height & weight % are widely uneven and who show a sudden increase/decrease in a previously steady growth pattern
True or False: Opportunistic infections are caused by organisms not normally found in the environment that the immune-suppressed individual cannot resist/fight False
True or False: Passive acquired immunity is needed when a person is exposed and needs immediate protection from a specific infectious disease & antibodies are obtained in immune serums True
What thought stage is a child who has the emerging ability to think mentally when the child focuses on the use of language as a tool to meet their needs? Preoperational
What thought stage is it when thoughts become increasingly logical & coherent enabling the child to sort, classify, and organize facts even though incapable of generalizing & dealing with abstractions? Concrete
What thought stage is it when higher process of thinking that permits abstract reasoning & systematic scientific problem solving? Formal operational
True or False: The sensorimotor stage refers to the infants knowledge coming primarily through sensory impressions and motor activities True
How many kCal is needed in a child birth-6 months? 108
How many kCal is needed in a child 6-12 months? 98
How many kCal is needed in a child 1-3 years? 102
How many kCal is needed in a child 4-6 years? 90
How many kCal is needed in a child 7-10 years? 70
How many kCal is needed in a child 11-18 years? 40-55
Diffused reddened area on the skin Erythema
Flat circular area on the skin that has a change in color Macule
Elevated circular reddened area on the skin Papule
Circular reddened area on skin that is elevated and contains fluid Vesicle
Circular reddened area on skin that is raised and contains pus Pustule
Dried pustule that is covered with a crust Scab
True or False: Cognition refers to intellectual ability True
True or False: Metabolic rate refers to energy use and oxygen consumption and is lower in children than adults False
What is the order in chain of infection? Causative agent, Reservoir, Portal of Exit, Mode of Transmission, Portal of Entry, Susceptible Host
What results in passive immunity? From an injection of antibodies from another person or animal (or antibodies from mother to fetus)
When a person produces his/her own immunity Active immunity
What must be available when immunizations are given? Epinephrine
What vaccine do you avoid if the patient is allergic to baker's yeast Recombinant hep B
What vaccines do you avoid if the patient is allergic to eggs? Influenza, MMR
What vaccines do you avoid if the patient is allergic to neomycin? IPV, MMR, and varicella
Time between earliest symptom and appearance of typical rash or fever Prodromal period
Can be transmitted from one person to another Communicable disease
Time between exposure to pathogen and onset of clinical symptom Incubation period
An insect or animal that carries and spreads disease Vector
Worldwide high incidence of a communicable disease Pandemic
An expected continuous incidence of disease in a localized area Epidemic
Caused by an organism normally present in the environment that the immune-suppressed person cannot fight Opportunistic infection
An infection acquired after admission to a health care facility Health-care associated infection
What is recommended if a child 4-18 yrs of age starts the vaccination process late, or is more than 1 month behind? Adhere to catch up schedule
What are contraindication of vaccinations? Allergies, history or high fever (105F) after receiving immunization
Who should live viruses NOT be given to? Immunocompromised children
Abuse can occur in what? Any situation, any socioeconomic level, and to any infant/child
What are signs/symptoms in abuse/neglect? Bruises in various stages of healing, poor hygiene, welts, bite marks, imprints or outlines of objects on child's skin, emotionally withdrawn, blood in diaper/irritation in genital area
What may occur when abused/neglected child is removed from the home? Child may cry due to mourning the loss of the family
What are the factors that contribute to or trigger child abuse? Social stress, parental stress, triggers, and child stress
What are the social stresses that contribute or trigger child abuse? Poverty, unemployment, and dysfunctional stress
What are the parental stresses that contribute or trigger child abuse? Abused as a child, lower self-esteem, overworked/overwhelmed, uneducated, and substance abuse
What are the triggers that contribute to child abuse? Need for discipline, family conflict, substance abuse, or financial crisis
What are the child stresses that contribute or trigger child abuse? Disabled, temperamental, hyperactive, foster child or step child
What are the strategies to prevent abuse/neglect? Teach positive coping strategies, anger management skills, techniques to build self-esteem, refer family support services/family counseling
What heals in various stages that are indicated according to color? Bruises
What does a bruise that is 7-10 days look like? Yellow
What should the nurse ask themselves when it comes to bruises? "Does it match the caregiver's explanation of what happened and when?"
What age should children be weaned off a bottle and to a cup by? 2
What is the appropriate place for a child car seat for newborn/infants? Middle seat facing rear of vehicle
How do you prevent bottle mouth? Don't put child to bed with bottle of milk or juice
When should child have first dental visit? 1 year
How many teeth does a child have by 1 year? 6
What teeth are the first to appear? Lower central incisors
When do the child's permanent teeth start to appear? 6
What is the causative organism of Fifth Disease? Human Parvovirus 19
What are the signs & symptoms of Fifth Disease? Child has a slapped cheek appearance, generalized rash appears, subsides, and reappears if skin is irritated by sun/heat
What is the incubation period of Fifth Disease? 4-14 days
What is the treatment of Fifth Disease? None
How long is Fifth Disease contagious? 4-14 days / incubation period
What is Fifth Disease? Benign condition, unless as child is immunocompromised. Condition may last 1-3 weeks
What can relieve itching in Fifth Disease? Oatmeal baths
Created by: tandkhopkins