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Chapter 8, HBH&I

8. Skeletal System

QuestionAnswer
How many bones are in the human body 206
A common bone disorder that causes loss of bone tissue especially in post–menopausal women Osteoporosis
Sizes and shapes of bone are classified as these four types. Long, Short, Flat, and Irregular bones
Another name for bone is __________ tissue. Osseous
Another name for bone cells is _______________. Osteocytes
Osteocytes secrete minerals like calcium, phosphate, and protein fibers outside the cell that make them hard. This material is called the ________. Intercellular matrix
Dense, hard bone tissue found primarily in the shafts of long bones and on he outer surfaces of other bones. Compact bone
Less dense bone located primparily at the ends of the long bones ind in the center of other bones. Has two names Spongy or cancellous bone
The microscopic unit of bone is called the _____________or _________________ Osteon or Haversian system
What does an osteon lcontain? Mature osteocytes arranged in\nin concentric circles around large blood vessels with the surrounding intercellular matrix containing minterals, and protein fibers
The plates in spongy or cancellous bone are called __________ Trabeculae
The strong part of the bone that is mostly made of compact bone Diaphysis
The enlarged ends of long bones are called the __________ Epiphysis
The epiphysis is made up of this and also is covered by another material thin layer of compact bone overlying spongy bone, covered by cartilage
The band of hyaline cartilage in the epiphysis of a long bone is called the ________ or_________ epiphyseal disc or growth plate
What kind of bone growth occurs at the epiphyseal disc? Longitudinal
The hollow center of the diaphysis Medullary cavity
In infancy the medullary cavity is filled with _____________ Red bone marrow for blood cell prduction
As an adult the memdullary cavity is filled with _____________ Yellow bone marrow (fat)
The tough fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers the outside of the bone everywhere except the articular cartilage Periosteum
This type of cartilage is found on the ends of the epiphysis, and forms a smooth, shiny surface that decreases friction within as joint Articular
A joint is also called an ____________ articulation
A three month old fetus has an early skeleton–like frame that is composed of ________–and _____________ cartilage and connective membrane
The process whereby the cartilage and connective tissue membrane of the fetal skeleton become bone is called ______________ Ossification
The flat bones of the skull are initially constructed of __________ Connective tissue membranes
What type of cells migrate into the connective tissue membrane of flat bones to turn it into bone Osteoblasts
In long bones what material is replaced by osteoblasts Cartilage
Longitudinal bone growth (growing longer) occurs at the _____________ Epiphyseal disc or growth plate
What hormones stop the longitudinal growth of bone Estrogen and Testosterone
Which hormone causes the bones to quit growing longitudinally the soonest Estrogen
As a bone grows wider it does not become any heavier because _______ cells remove bone from the medullary canal and ________ cells add bone to the outside of the bone Osteoclasts, Osteoblasts
A large rounded knob that usually articulates with another bone Condyle
An enlargement near or above a condyle Epicondyle
An enlarged and rouned end of a bone Head
A small, flatened surface Facet
A ridge on a bone Crest
A prominent projection on a bone Process
A sharp projection on a bone spine
A knoblike projection Tubercle (tuberosity)
A large tubercle found only on the femur bone Trochanter
An opening through a bone uaually serves as a passageway for nerves, blood vessels, or ligaments foramen
A depression or groove in a bone Fossa
A tunnel or tubelike passageway Meatus
A cavity or holow space Sinus
A bone brreak (fracture) in whih local tissue damage is minimal and the bone does not break the skin Closed or simple fracture
A bone break in which the end(s) of the bone break the skin and soft tissue damage is major. Repair within 4 hours will reduce risk of infection Open or compound fracture
An incomplete fracture in which the bone breaks incompletely and usually occurs in children Greenstick or incomplete fracture
What are the two types of osseous tissue that make up bone? compact (dense bone) and spongy (cancellous)
This part of the skeleton includes the bones of the skull, hyoid bone, bones of the middle ear, vertebral column and bony thorax Axial skeleton
This part of the skeleton includes bones of the extremities, hip and shoulder girdles Appendicular skeleton
The bony structure that encases and protects the brain Cranium
This bone forms the forehead and upper eye area Frontal bone of cranium
These two bones form the upper sides of the head and the roof of the cranial cavity Two parietal bones
These two bones form the area known as the temples Two temporal bones
The opening on the temporal bone that is the opening for the ear is officially called the _____________ external auditory meatus
The zygomatic process of the temporal bone forms part of the _____________ Cheekbone
The sharp process on the temporal bone where several tongue and laryngeal muscles attach is called the ? Styloid process
Another large process on the temporal bone where neck muscles attach? The mastoid process of the temporal bone
This bone is located at the back and base of the skull. Occipital bone
The large hole in the occipital bone that allows passage of the spinal cord is called the _______________. foramen magnum
This bone is butterfly shaped and forms part of the floor and sides of the cranium. Sphenoid bone
The depression in the spenoid bone that contains the pituitary gland is known as the "Turks saddle" or the _________ Sella Tursica
this irregularly shaped bone locaed between the eye orbits helps form the nasal cavity and contains a sinus Ethmoid bone
The lower jaw bone that carries the teeth Mandible
What joint is formed by the two upright projections on the mandible where they contact the temporal bone Temporomandibular joint
The grinding of teeth during sleep Bruxism
These two bones fuse to form the upper jaw, and has an extension that forms part of the hard palate Maxilla
these two bones form the posterior part of the hard palate and failure to close causes cleft palate Palatine bones
These bones form the cheekbones and also a part of the orbit of the eye Zygomatic bone
These air–filled cavities located in central parts of bones of the skull lessen skull weight and increase the sounf of the voice Sinuses
Name the four paranasal sinuses: frontal, ethmoidal, spenoidal, and maxillary sinuses
The bones of the adult skull are held together by a unique type of joint called a _____________ Suture
An abnormal curvature of the spine involving he lateral curvature of the thoracic vertebrae is called __________ Scoliosis
An exaggerated thoracic curvature , sometimes also referred to as a hunchback is known as a _______________ Kyphosis
An exaggerated lumbar curvature is sometimes called a swayback or ______________ Lordosis
The ribs, sternum and thoracic vertebrae form the _________ Thoracic cage
The three parts of the sternum are the _______, ________, and ___________ Manubrium, body, xyphoid process
How many pairs of ribs do we have? 12 pair
The top seven pairs of ribs attach directly to the sternum by costal cartilage and are therefore called True ribs
Created by: joniparson1