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Chapter 4, HBH&I

4. Cell Metabolism

The series of chemical reactions necessary for the use of the raw material is called ________ Metabolism
A metabolic reaction that builds larger, more complex substances from simpler substances Anabolism
A metabolic reaction that breaks down larger, more complex substances into simpler substances Catabolism
Pasta, bread, rice, potatoes, jelly, sugar are all examples of ____________ Carbohydrates
What three organic compounds make up carbohydrates? Oxygen, Carbon, and Hydrogen
Single sugar compounds are called __________ Monosaccharides
Double sugar compounds are called _________ Disaccharides
Many sugar compounds are called ________ Polysaccharides
Glucose, Fructose, Galactose, Deoxyribose, and Ribose are all _______ Monosaccharides
Which monosaccharide is the most important energy source for the human body Glucose
What are the monosaccharides deoxyribose and ribose used to make? DNA
Two monosaccharides linked together form a ________ Disaccharide
Sucrose, maltose, and lactose are examples of _________ Disaccharides
Starches, glycogen, and cellulose are examples of _____________ Polysaccharides
Disaccharides must be broken down into this before they can be absorbed by our bodies Monosaccharides
The storage form for glucose in the human body is a polysaccharide called ___________ Glycogen
Where is glycogen stored in the human body Liver and skeletal muscle
Fiber in our diet that helps the GI system to function is made up mostly of the polysaccharide _________ Cellulose
Name the three ways that the body uses glucose? 1. burned as fuel\n2. stored as glycogen\n3. stored as fat
Glucose can be broken down using ______ catabolism or _________ catabolism Aerobic, Anaerobic
The breakdown of glucose without oxygen Anaerobic catabolism
The breakdown of glucose with oxygen Aerobic catabolism
The first step in catabolism of glucose with or without oxygen is the same and yields 2 ATP + pyruvic acid. This is called? Glycolysis
In the absence of oxygen, glucose is broken down to pyruvic acid which is then converted to __________. Lactic acid
If oxygen is present, then pyruvic acid enters this organ to be metabolized to many ATP + H2O + CO2 Mitochondria
This is the cycle that glucose undergoes inside the mitochondria. Krebs cycle
What two categories of substances can be broken down and used to make glucose besides carbohydrates Proteins and Fats
The making of glucose from nonglucose sources Gluconeogenesis
The person with diabetes lacks this hormone that helps glucose to enter the cells Insulin
Organic compounds commonly called fats or oils Lipids
Lipids are made up of these two building blocks Fatty acids and Glycerol
The most important steroid in the body Cholesterol
The lipid that helps make up the cell membrane Phospholipid
Which of the following substances produces the most energy when it undergoes aerobic metabolism Lipids
The building blocks of protein Amino acids
The number of amino acids available in the body to make proteins 20 (Twenty)
Amino acids that must be present in our diet because we can not make them Essential Amino Acids
Amino acids that our body can make in the liver Nonessential Amino Acids
Amino acids are joined together by these bonds to form peptides, polypeptides, and proteins Peptide Bond
Several amino acids joined together by peptide bonds Peptide
Many amino acids joined together by peptide bonds Polypeptide
Very large polypeptides often with more than one chain of polypeptides Proteins
The combination of a sugar and a protein Glycoprotein
The combination of a lipid and a protein Lipoprotein
Name the three ways the body uses proteins 1. To make hormones, antibodies, muscle, etc.\n2. May be broken down and burned to make ATP\n3. May be broken down and turned into glucose (gluconeogenesis)
What element does protein contain that lipids and carbohydrates do not Nitrogen
The nitrogen in protein that is not recycled is converted to ______ and excreted in the urine Urea
What substance can build up in the blood and cause confusion, coma if the liver is unable to handle nitrogen from protein? Ammonia (NH3)
The directions that show the pattern of amino acid assembly to create proteins is stored in this structure DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
DNA is stored in this cellular structure Nucleus
Adenine pairs with thymine, and cytosine only pairs with guanine. This is called _______. Base–pairing
Name the four bases found in DNA Adenine(A), Cytosine(C), Guanine(G), and Thymine(T)
Each three bases in DNA when read vertically codes for a particular amino acid. This is called __________ Base–sequencing
The copying and delivery of the code for protein synthesis is done by this nucleic acid mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid)
Name the three ways in which RNA is different from DNA 1. sugars are different (ribose in RNA vs deoxyribose in DNA)\n2. DNA=2 strands, RNA=1 strand\n3. RNA has uracil instead of thymine
mRNA goes to this structure outside the nucleus where proteins are made Ribosome
This RNA is found attached to individual amino acids within the cytoplasm and delivers the amino acid to the proper site for protein synthesis tRNA (transfer ribonucleic acid)
The copying of the code by mRNA Transcription
Adenine and guanine are classified as which of the following: purines or pyrimidines? Purines
Cytosine, thymine, and uracil are classified as which of the following: purines or pyrimidines Pyrimidines
The reading of the mRNA code by tRNA is called this Translation
This type of poisoning inactivates some enzymes in mitochondria so O2 can not be used to make ATP causing death Cyanide poisoning
Phenylketonuria, cystic fibrosis, and glycogen storage disease are examples of this category of diseases Enzyme deficiency diseases
The lack of O2 causes anaerobic metabolism with a decrease in blood pH. This is called _________ Lactic acidosis
Created by: joniparson1