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Chapter 3. HBH&I

3. Cells

This is the structural and functional unit of all living matter Cell
The cell membrane is also called the ______ membrane Plasma
What separates the intracellular (inside the cell) material from the extracellular (outside the cell) material Cell membrane
The cell membrane can select what substances are allowed to cross it and it is said to be selectively permeable, or _________ Semipermeable
The cell membrane is composed primarily of ______ and _______ Phospholipids and protein
This structure contains cellular contents, is a phospholipid bilayer, and regulates what enters and leaves the cell Cell membrane
Surrounds and supports organelles and is the gel–like substance found inside the cell but outside the nucleus Cytoplasm
This type of endoplasmic reticulum is where protein is synthesized Rough endoplasmic reticulum
This type of endoplasmic reticulum is where lipids and steroids are made Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
This intracellular structure converts energy in nutrients to ATP ( power plant of the cell) Mitochondria
This intracellular structure packages protein in membranes Golgi apparatus
This structure is the site of protein synthesis Ribosomes
These structures contain powerful enzymes to destroy waste, bacteria, etc. Also known as the "housekeepers" of the cell Lysosomes
This structure provides for intracellular shape and support cytoskeleton
These structures separate chromosomes during mitosis Centrioles
These create movement over the cell surface Cilia
These structures allow sperm to swim Flagella
the control center of the cell that contains genetic information is called the ______ Nucleus
The phospholipid bilayer that surrounds the nucleus is called the ______ membrane Nuclear
The gel like substance within the nucleus is called _______ nucleoplasm
The structures inside the cell are called little organs or __________ Organelles
The inner layer of the mitochondria that has many folds is referred to as _______ Cristae
What structure in the cell membrane allows substances to pass that will not dissolve within the phospholipid bilayer Pores ( holes in the membrane formed by proteins)
Substances can be moved across the cell membrane with or without the use of energy (ATP). This is called ______ transport (without energy) and ______ transport (with energy) Passive, Active
Name the four types of passive transport Diffusion, Facilitated diffusion, Osmosis, and Filtration
Movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is called ________ Diffusion
The most common transport mechanism is _______ Diffusion
A helper molecule helps move a substance from an area of high to low concentration. This is called __________ Facilitated diffusion
Movement of water (solvent) from an area with more water to an area with less water is called __________ Osmosis
Movement of water/dissolved substances from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure is called _________ Filtration
Movement of a substance from low to high concentration that requires ATP is called a/an ___________ Active transport pumps
A general term for taking in or ingestion of water or solids by the cell membrane is _______ Endocytosis
Cellular eating. Taking in solid particles via the cell membrane Phagocytosis
Taking in water droplets by the cell membrane ( Cellular drinking) is called ________ Pinocytosis
Secretion of cellular products out of the cell is called ________ Exocytosis
When the concentrations on both sides of a membrane are the same a state called _______ has been reached Equilibrium
_________ is the ability of a solution to affect the volume and pressure within a cell Tonicity
A/an ______ solution is one in which the solution has the same concentration as the intracellular fluid Isotonic
If the solution has a lower concentration than that found inside a cell, the solution is said to be ________ Hypotonic
If a solution has a higher concentration than that found inside a cell, the solution is said to be ___________ Hypertonic
This type of cell division is involved in bodily growth and repair. It results in two identical "daughter cells" Mitosis
The cell cycle is divided into two major phases: ________ and _______ Interphase, mitosis
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase are stages of ________ Mitosis
When a cell develops it begins to specialize or _______ to produce a specific cell type Differentiate
What is the name of a cell that is relatively undifferentiated and whose function is the production of additional unspecialized cells Stem cells
A noncancerous tumor could also be called ________ Benign
A cancerous tumor could also be called a ______ tumor Malignant
The spreading of cancer cells is called _________ Metastasis
Cell death is also called cell ________ Necrosis
A decrease in the size of the cells, leading to a wasting away of tissues and organs Atrophy
Abnormal cell growth with a change in cell size, shape, and organization. These are said to be pre–cancerous Dysplasia
Overgrowth or increase in the numbers of cells that increases the size of tissues and organs Hyperplasia
Transformation of one cell type into another Metaplasia
Death of cells or groups of cells Necrosis
Abnormal new growth, also called a tumor. Can be cancerous or benign Neoplasm
This type of cell division occurs only in sex cells Meiosis
Created by: joniparson1