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Chapter 1, HBH&I

1. Intro to the Human Body

The branch of science that studies the structure of the body Anatomy
The branch of science that describes how the body works, or functions Physiology
The branch of science that describes the consequences of the improper functioning of the body parts Pathophysiology
List the bodies levels of organization from simple to complex Atoms, Molecules, Cells, Tissues, Organ, Organ system, Organism
This system consists of skin and related structures such as hair and nails. Intetgumentary system
List three functions of the integumentary system Covers the body, helps regulate body temperature, and contains some of the structures necessary for sensation
This system forms the basic framework of the body and is made up of bones, joints, and cartilage Skeletal system
List two functions of the skeletal system Protects the body organs, and stores calcium
This system consists of three types of muscles Muscular system
List two functions of the muscular system Moves the skeleton and maintains body posture
This system consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs Nervous system
These nerves receive information from the environment and bring it to the spinal cord and brain for interpretation Sensory nerves
this system consists of numerous glands that secrete hormones and chemical substances that regulate body activities Endocrine system
The body functions growth, reproduction, metabolism, and water balance are regulated by which body system Endocrine system
This body system consists of the hear and the blood vessels Circulatory system
This system consists of the lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, lymph, and other lymphoid organs Lymphatic system
This system consists of the lungs and the other structures that conduct air to and from the lungs Respiratory system
This system consists of organs designed to eat foodk, break it down for absorption, and eliminate the waste Digestive system
This system consists of the kidneys and other structures that help excrete waste product from the body via urine Urinary system
This system consists of organs and structures that enable humans to reproduce Reproductive system
This term refers to the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment in response to a changing external environment Homeostasis
Mechanisms that help maintain homeostasis are called ____________. Homeostatic mechanisms
Diseases and disorders are the result of homeostatic __________. Imbalance
This position is demonstrated with the body standing erect, with face forward, arms at the sides, and the toes and palms of the hands directed forward Anatomical position
This relative position means that a part is above another part or is closer to the head Superior
If a body part is located below another part or is closer to the feet it is said to be _______ Inferior
The relative position that means towards the front surface (belly surface or ventral surface). Anterior
Relative position that means toward the back surface Posterior
Another word for posterior is _________ Dorsal
Another word for anterior is _________ Ventral
The relative position that means towards the midline Medial
The relative position that means away from the midline of the body Lateral
This term means that the structure is nearer the point of attachment Proximal
Term that means a part is farther away from the point of attachment than is the other part Distal
Relative position that meants that a part is located on or near the surface of the body Superficial
This terms means the body part is away from the surface of the body Deep
A part located in the center is said to be ________ Central
A part located away from the center is said to be _____ Peripheral
This plane divides the body lengthwise into right and left portions Sagittal plane
This plane divides the body into anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) portions Frontal plane or Coronal plane
This plane divides the body horizontally, creating an upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portion Transverse plane
Regional term for the anterior trunk just below the ribs Abdominal
Regional term for the area in front of the elbow Antecubital
Regional term for the armpit Axillary
Regional term for the upper arm Brachial
Regional term for the cheek area, specifically between the gum and cheek Buccal
Regional term for the head Cephalic
Regional term for the neck region Cervical
Regional term that means nearer to the head Cranial
Regional term that means fingers, toes Digital
Regional term for the thigh area Thigh
Regional term for the fleshy area along each side between the lower ribs and the top of the hip bones Flank
Regional term for the area where the thigh meets the trunk of the body Inguinal
Regional term for the mouth Oral
Regional term for the area around the eye Orbital
Regional term for the front of the knee Patellar
Regional term for the foot Pedal
Regional term for the genital area Pubic
Regional term for the middle of the chest (over the breastbone area) Sternal
Regional term for the navel Umbilical
Regional term for being nearer to the lower region of the spinal column (near the tailbone) Caudal
Regional term for the rounded area of the shoulder closest to the upper arm Deltoid
Regional term for the buttocks Gluteal
Regional term for the area of the back between the ribs and the hips Lumbar
Regional term for the back of the head Occipital
Regional term for behind, or back of, the knee area Popliteal
Regional term for the shoulder blade area Scapular
Another name for organs Viscera
The cavity toward the back of the body is called the _______ Dorsal cavity
The cavity toward the fron of the body is called the Ventral cavity
The dorsal cavity can be divided into what two cavities? Cranial and spinal (vertebral) cavity
The ventral cavity can be divided into what two main divisions Thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity
The space in the thoracic cavity that contains the hear, esophagus, trachea, thymus gland and large blood vessels attached to the heart is called the ___________ Mediastinum
The right and left lungs are located on either side of the mediastinum in the ________ cavities Pleural
The abdominopelvic cavity can be further divided into what two cavities Abdominal and pelvic cavity
What organs are contained in the abdominal cavity? Stomach, most of intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, and kidneys
What organs are contained in the pelvic cavity? Remainder of intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and internal parts of reproductive system
What four quadrants divide the abdominopelvic cavity Right upper quadrant (RUQ), Left upper quandran (LUQ)\nRight lower quadrant (RLQ)\nLeft lower quadrant (LLQ)
Name the 9 regions that divide the abdominopelvic cavity Right and left hypochondriac region, Epigastric region, Right and Left lumbar region Umbilical region, Right and left iliac region, and hypogastric region
Name the four smaller cavities located in the head oral, nasal, orbital, and middle ear cavities
Created by: joniparson1