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Anaphylaxis EMT

NREMT Preparation

Immune Response Foreign bodies (antigens) can be absorbed, ingested, injected, or inhaled. Immune system detects antigens and deploys antibodies to fight them.
Allergic Reaction Some antigens (allergens) stimulate an allergic reaction. An allergic reaction is an excessive immune response to an allergen.
Allergic Reaction Allergic reactions can be local or systemic. Symptoms include itching, watery eyes, runny nose, etc.
Sensitization Patients can develop sensitivity to a substance that did not previously cause a reaction, such as latex. Following sensitization, the severity of reactions can get progressively worse each time.
Anaphylaxis (also known as anaphylactic reaction or anaphylactic shock) Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening form of allergic reaction.
Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is always systemic and impairs the airway, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Anaphylaxis causes upper- and lower-airway swelling, bronchoconstriction, vasodilation, hypotension, capillary permeability (leakage), and increased mucus production.
CAUSES OF ANAPHYLAXIS Medications, such as antibiotics, aspirin, nonsteroidal antiĀ­ inflammatory (NSAID) medications, vitamins Environmental triggers, such as chemicals and pollens Foods, including peanut products and derivatives, shellfish, eggs
CAUSES OF ANAPHYLAXIS Bites and stings from wasps, bees, ants, etc. Latex (found in many medical supplies)
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Central nervous system: restlessness, anxious, irritable Skin: flushed, hives, swelling Respiratory: dyspnea, tachypnea, wheezing, stridor Cardiovascular: tachypnea, hypotension
MANAGEMENT Consider epinephrine per medical direction and local protocol. It is essential to understand the impact of vasodilation on anaphylaxis. During anaphylaxis, systemic vasodilation (enlargement of blood vessels) leads to hypotension and distributive shock. It also contributes to capillary permeability (leakage) and pulmonary edema.
MANAGEMENT Remember: Vasodilation = enlargement of blood vessels Anaphylaxis = massive vasodilation! Massive vasodilation = distributive shock!
Created by: ditchdoctech