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Evolution - Biology

TermDefinition
evolution the process by which organisms develop over time through modification from an ancient ancestor
fossil the preserved remains or traces of an ancient organism
variation the difference between individuals in a population
artificial selection the process of breeding only livestock or crops with desirable characteristics in order to increase the frequency of those characteristics in the offspring
adaptation an inherited modification of structure or function that allows an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment
descent with modification evolution; the idea that organisms change over time through modification from an ancient ancestor
extinct a species with no surviving members
fitness the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment
natural selection a nonrandom mechanism of evolution in which the fittest organisms survive and leave the most offspring
principle of common descent the idea that all organisms share an ancient common ancestor
survival of the fittest the idea that organisms adapt to their environment through natural selection so that the best suited organisms survive and pass their genes on to their offspring
analagous structure body parts in different species that have the same appearance or function, but are not the result of common descent
biogeography the study of the past and present geographical distribution of species found throughout the world
comparative anatomy the study of the similarities and differences in anatomy between different species
comparative embryology the comparison of the earliest stages of development between different species
comparative genetics the study of the similarities and differences in the DNA sequences of different species
homologous structure body parts in different species that may not serve the same function but have a similar structure due to common descent
vestigial structure homologous structures that have lost most or all of their original function
allele frequency the number of times a particular allele occurs in a gene pool compared to the total number of alleles for that particular gene
gene pool the total number of genes, including all the different alleles for those genes, present in a population at a particular time
polygenic trait a trait that is controlled by more than one gene
single-gene trait a trait that is controlled by a single gene
bottleneck effect a random change in allele frequencies due to a considerable decrease in population size
directional selection a form of natural selection in which a phenotype at one end of the distribution curve conveys a higher fitness than the phenotypes in the middle or at the other end of the curve
disruptive selection a form of natural selection in which the phenotypes at either end of the distribution curve convey a higher fitness than the phenotype in the middle of the curve
founder effect the accumulation of random genetic changes in an isolated population founded by only a few individuals from a larger population
genetic drift the accumulation of random genetic changes in a small population that result in a change in allele frequency
stabilizing selection a form of natural selection in which the phenotype in the middle of the distribution curve conveys a higher fitness that the phenotypes at either end of the curve
genetic equilibrium a situation in which allele frequencies in a population do not change
Hardy-Weinberg principle a principle that states that allele frequencies will not change in a large, randomly-mating population where there is no mutation, natural selection, or immigration or emigration
Created by: burky65