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Structure

Microbiology 4

QuestionAnswer
How many bacteria phyla are there? How many archaea phyla are there? 25 Bacteria Phyla. 2 Archaea Phyla.
What are the 3 domains of life? Eukaryota, Bacteria and Archaea.
What are the 5 Kingdom Classifications? Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plants and Animals.
What is Monera? The kingdom that was originally given to bacteria AND archae (all prokaryotes). Now bacteria and archaea are classified separately.
What is Protista? The kingdom given to single-celled eukaryotes.
Explain organisms in the Eukaryota domain: Internal Membranes
Explain organisms in the Bacteria domain: No internal membranes and unique protein synthesis.
Explain organisms in the Archaea domain: No internal membranes and protein synthesis is similar to that of eukaryotes.
What are the 3 types of morphological diversity in prokaryotes? (Shape) Bacillus (Rod), Coccus (Sphere), Spiral.
3 Types of Bacillus: Single, Diplobacillus (paired), or Streptobacillis (chain)
5 Types of Coccus: Single, Diplococcus (paired), Tetrad (4), Staphylococcus (Cluster) or Streptococcus (chain)
3 Types of Spiral: Vibrio (comma shaped), Spirillum (Thick Cell Wall and thus rigid), Spirorchete (Thin cell wall and thus flexible)
What are aspects of prokaryotic cell structure external to the cell membrane? Flagelli, Pilli, Glycocalyx, Cell Wall.
What are flagelli? Flagellum are whip-like tails that help prokaryotes move. They are less and longer than cilia.
What are pilli? Hairy presence over surface of cell - serve as an antenna for sensing the environment, and adhesive purposes.
What are Glycocalyx? Thick Capsule or thin slime layer (for protection and adhesion)
What are 4 aspects of cell wall? 1. External to membrane. 2. Contains glycoprotein = peptidoglycan. 3. Protects from osmotic lysis. 4. Can be gram positive or gram negative.
What are the aspects of a gram positive cell wall? Thick, multiple layers of peptidoglycan. Teichoic Acid holds the layers together. Stains blue.
What holds layers together in a gram positive cell wall? Techoic Acid.
How many layers are there of a gram negative cell wall? Thin one or two layers of peptidoglycan.
Aspects of a gram negative cell wall? Thin one or two layers. Outer membrane : outside of cell wall. Contains lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
In a gram negative cell, what is the function of O polysaccharide? Used to identify various strains of E. Coli
In a gram negative cell, what is the function of Lipid A? It anchors to the membrane and is released as an endotoxin upon death or damage of cell.
What does the cell envelope consist of? Cell wall and cell membrane.
Explain cell membrane: fluid mosaic model: Cell membrane layer is fluid, moves around within the layer. (Maggot example)
What is cell membrane usually made of (for bacteria and other prokaryotes)? Phospholipid bilayer.
Some archaea have what type of cell membrane? Monolayer with two heads.
What in the cell membrane provides effective separation of internal and external environment? It's amphipathic nature (both hydrophilic and hydrophobic nature). Phosphate heads are polar and hydrophilic (face water) and fatty acid tails are nonpolar and hydrophobic (fatty acids).
What are 3 types of proteins mentioned in this lecture? Integral, Extracellular, Intracellular
Explain integral proteins: Involved in functions both inside and outside cell (cell transport, etc...)
Explain extracellular proteins: Extracellular proteins are involved in functions outside of the cell.
Explain intracellular proteins: Intracellular proteins are involved in the functions inside the cell.
Many proteins serve as ________________. Transporters
Compare/contrast Endotoxin vs. Exotoxin Endotoxin: Inside, released upon cell damage/death. Exotoxin: outside; Excreted from living organisms into the environment.
Explain fluid mosaic model in cell membranes: Fluid combination of phospholipids, carbohydrates and proteins. Particles often move around within the layer.
Explain simple diffusion: Diffusion from high concentration to low. Does not require energy. Nonpolar molecules (molecular oxygen, CO2, etc..) can simple diffuse, and small polar molecules (like water).
Explain Facilitated Diffusion: Larger polar molecules cannot go through simple diffusion, so they bind to proteins to carry them across. No energy is required.
In facilitated diffusion, the rate of transport is limited to what? The concentration of membrane transport proteins.
What are two examples of active transport? What does active transport require? 1. Sodium-Potassium Pump. 2. Proton (Hydrogen Ion) pump. Active transport requires energy.
Created by: sham13