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Biomedical 3.3 Vocab

Vocabulary for Unit 3.3

TermDefinition
Allele Any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a given locus.
Autosome A chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex, as opposed to a sex chromosome.
Chromosome Any of the usually linear bodies in the cell nucleus that contain the genetic material.
Dominant Trait A genetic trait is considered dominant if it is expressed in a person who has only one copy of the gene associated with the trait.
Gene A discrete unit of hereditary information.
Genetic Material Molecules responsible for heredity and variation of organisms.
Genotype All or part of the genetic constitution of an individual or group.
Heredity The transmission of traits from ancestor to descendant.
Homologous Chromosome Chromosomes having the same or allelic genes with genetic loci usually arranged in the same order.
Karyotype A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
Meiosis The cellular process that results in the number of chromosomes in gamete-producing cells being reduced to one half and that involves a reduction division in which one of each pair of homologous chromosomes passes to each daughter cell.
Mitosis A process that takes place in the nucleus of a dividing cell, involves a series of steps, and results in the formation of two new nuclei each having the same number of chromosomes as the parent nucleus.
Mutation A rare change in the genetic material, ultimately creating genetic diversity.
Pedigree A diagram of a family tree showing the occurrence of heritable characteristics in parents and offspring over multiple generations.
Phenotype The observable properties of an organism that are produced by the interaction of the genotype and the environment.
Recessive Trait A condition that appears only in individuals who have received two copies of a mutant gene, one copy from each parent.
Sex Chromosome One of the pair of chromosomes responsible for determining the sex of an individual.
Created by: kherrboldt