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Animal Growth/Dev

Test 1 material

Growth normal expansion of size as produced by the accretion of tissues similar to that of the original tissue or organ
Hypertrophy process in which cells increase in size
Hyperplasia addition of more cells
true growth increase in amount of muscle of bone and fat
Fattening accumulation of fat
Development gradual progression from a lower to higher state of complexity
Average daily gain daily increase in weight
Which performance trait is a direct reflection of an animal's ability to grow average daily gain
Growth rate speed at which animals grow
Current market animals possess less fat than those produced earlier. T/F? True
Paylean compound added to swine diets to improve production efficiency
Meat rich source of high-quality protein, iron, and essential B-vitamins
Sir John Hammond conducted some of the earliest documented research showing how animals grow and develop under different environmental and nutritional conditions
Rex Butterfield and Roy Berg demonstrating growth and development patterns in tissue subsets
Growth hormone used in a lot of processes and has been applied to promote milk production in dairy cattle
Leptin capable of modulating whole body fat accretion
Double muscling genetic condition in cattle that results in greatly exaggerated muscle growth
Transgenic genetic material that has been introduced to an organism from an unrelated organism
Tissues groups of closely associated cells that act synergistically to perform specific functions
What are the four primary tissues? muscle tissue, connective tissue, nervous tissue, and epithelial tissue
Epithelium thin layer of tissue that covers all free surfaces of they body; acts as barrier between the underlying tissue it covers and its environment
Endothelium type of epithelium that covers innermost surfaces of capillaries; allows nutrients to cross and enter adjacent tissue while cellular metabolites diffuse across and re-enter circulation for removal as blood flows through capillary beds
Secretory cells contain extensive endoplasmic reticulum that is responsible for packaging and transporting various products to cell surface for release
Protenaceous contains high proportion of protein
Simple epithelium single layer of cells; nuclei appear to line up in a straight line; located in places where maximal secretion or absorption is needed
Stratified epithelium consists of many layers of cells which routinely shed when challenged by environment; found where there is a lot of friction by hostile environment
Epithelium consists of different cell types. T/F? True
Squamous cells very thin and flat in one dimension but broad in other two dimensions
Cuboidal cells possess a box-like structure where all dimensions are relatively equal
Columnar cells slender and elongated; nucleus is positioned toward base of the cell
Basement membrane layer of fibers and filaments that serve to attach to epithelium to under-lying connective tissues
Transitional epithelium resembles stratified cuboidal epithelium, but changes dramatically with distension of the underlying tissue; found in bladder and other parts of urinary tract
Cilia provide cell with 2 functions: improving absorptive and secretory abilities and aiding in movement of materials along their border
Microvilli allows for movement across surface of epithelium; enables cells to have 20 times more surface area
Connective tissue proper extracellular substance which ranges form a semi-solid, glue-like substance to a rigid, amorphous material
Ground substance viscous solution in which proteinaceous fibers are imbedded
Macrophages small ameboid cells which move around within tissue consuming damaged cells and foreign substances that gained access to body
Mast cells move freely within connective tissues and responsible for release of histamines; wandering cells
Histamines convey inflammatory response
Fibroblasts cells that are somewhat anchored in connective tissue matrix and responsible for production of fibrous proteins that reinforce amorphous structure; fixed cells
What are the primary reinforcement proteins in connective tissue? collagenous, reticular, and elastic fibers
Proteoglycans proteins linked to carbohydrates
Ground substance fluid-like structure of connective tissue that contains proteoglycans
What are the most prominent carbohydrates attached to these proteoglycans? chondroitin sulfates and hyaluronic acid
Chondroitin sulfates abundant in cartilage and tendons
Hyaluronic acid very viscous and supplies lubrication in form of synovial fluid to most articulations(joints) of skeletal system
Depolymerization reduces viscosity and results in increased friction in articulations
Collagen most abundant protein found in animals; comprises 20 to 30% of animal's body
Alpha chain primary sequence of collagen
Pyrole rings cause amino acids in collagen to coil into a left-handed helix
Procollagen secreted from fibroblast; precurser to collagen
Pentafibrils ultimate structure of collagen; where collagen fibrils are arranged in a staggered formation that yields highly organized fibers
Lathyrism poor collagen cross-linking leading to muscle weakness
Reticular fibers smaller and more delicate than collagen fibers and results in somewhat loose type of connective tissue
Elastin can be reversibly stretched to nearly twice their length; abundant in blood vessels, ligaments, and skin
What is precursor molecule to elastin? tropoelastin
Loose connective tissue highly flexible structure; provides structure to blood vessels and nerves; highly vascularized and contains a lot of cells
Dense connective tissue provides maximum strength with little flexibility
What are the two types of dense connective tissue? dense regular and dense irregular
Hematopoietic tissue specialized connective tissue that contains mostly fluid, such as blood and lymph
What do white blood cells consist of? lymphocytes, macrophages, and microphages
What does extracellular fluid of blood consist of? plasma, lymph, and interstitial fluid
Cartilage connective tissue that provides structural support for other tissues
Created by: David55900



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