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Endocrine System

Hormones derived from cholesterol (steroid hormones) Androgens, estrogens, progestins
Hormones derived from amino acids epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, melatonin
Negative feedback loop Less hormones are produced when hormone levels have risen
Down-regulation Cells decrease amount of receptors due to high hormone levels
Up-regulation: Low levels of hormone cause target cells to make more receptors
hormones Long distance chemical messengers. Can be either steroid based or amino acid based.
Endocrinology Study of endocrine glands and hormones
Lipid derived hormones (excluding steroids) corticosteroids, mineralocorticosteroids, calcitriol, eicosanoids
Second messengers molecules that increase speed of enzymatic activity w/in the cell when hormone concentration is elevated
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) second messenger synthesized from ATP by enzyme adenylyl cyclase. Activates G Protein, as well as adenylyl cyclase to make more cAMP
What does cAMP do causes cell to use Protein Kinase A (PKA), which phosphorylates protein
Phosphatidylinositol (PI) Small portion of eukaryotic cell membrane.
autocrine A chemical that will exert a response on the same cell that it was released from
paracrine A chemical which affects a cell nearby, but different from the cell it was released from
Hormones affect... Growth and Development, Body Temperature, Mood, Metabolism Eliminaton & Breathing, Blood Circulation, Sexual Function & Reproduction, Mobilization of Immune Cells & Body Defenses
hypothalamus regulates certain body functions & endocrine functions
Hormones released from hypothalamus Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) Growth Hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) Somatostatin Dopamine
Tropic Hormones Cause target organ to release hormones once tropic hormone binds to receptor
Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) Has anterior & posterior lobe. Attached to hypothalamus in cranial cavity
Hormones of anterior pituitary gland Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Adencortotropic Hormone (ACTH) Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Growth Hormone (GH aka somatotropin) Prolactin (PRL)
Hormones of posterior pituitary gland Oxytocin (OXY) Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH, aka vasopressin)
pineal gland located above 3rd ventricle of brain. Pinealocytes release melatonin
Melatonin A sleep aid that regulates circadian rhythms
Thymus gland Produces thymosins & thymopoitins which aids immune system development
Thyroid gland Releases thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and calcitonin. T3 & T4 regulate metabolism.
Parathyroid gland Assists calcitonin in regulating blood calcium levels
Pancreas Endocrine cells cluster together to form islets of Langerhans. Pancreas hormones regulate blood sugar.
Blood sugar regulation Insulin lowers blood sugar when it is too high Glucagon increases blood sugar when it is too low
Adrenal glands The inner portion is the adrenal medulla, outer portion termed adrenal cortex
Adrenal medulla releases epinephrine & nonepinephrine when synpathetic nervous system is activated
Adrenal cortex Produces various steroid based hormones
Testes Testosterone & male sex hormones are produced by interstitial cells w/in loose connective tissue between seminiferous tubules
Ovaries Produce estrogens & progesterone during female reproductive life. Located in the pelvic cavity
Placenta Releases the hormones estrogen, progesterone, human placental lactogen (hPL), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
dwarfism occurs when not enough GH is secreted during early childhood
gigantism occurs when too much GH is secreted during childhood and adolescence
acromegaly occurs w/ hypersecretion of GH after growth plates of long bones have been ossified



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