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Space Science 2

Space Science Chapter 2 - moon, sun and earth

What direction is down on the Earth? towards the center
The Earth rotates around an imaginary line running through the center called __________. axis of rotation
The ends of the axis are called _______________. north and south poles
How long does it take earth to rotate on its axis? 24 hours
How many degrees is the earth tilted from its orbital plane? 23 degrees
Without the sun's ____, earth would keep moving in a straight line into space. gravitational pull
Patterns of temperature changes and other weather trends are called _________. seasons
At an ___________, sunlight shines equally on the northern and southern hemispheres. equinox
At a ________________, an area of sunlight is at a maximum in one hemisphere and at a minimum in the other. solstice
What day of the month do equinoxes/solstices occur? 21st
The ________ marks the beginning of autumn in the Northern Hemisphere and spring in the Southern hemisphere. September Equinox
The ____________ is the Summer solstice in the southern hemisphere and the winter solstice in the northern hemisphere. December Solstice
The ________ marks the beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere and autumn in the Southern hemisphere. March Equinox
The ____________ is the summer solstice in the northern hemisphere and the winter solstice in the southern hemisphere. June Solstice
As we approach summer, the sun appears to be ___________ in the sky each day. higher
The more direct are the rays of the sun, the ____________ an area will become. warmer
Earth is closet to the sun during what season? winter
What are the two reasons Earth is warmer in summer than winter? It's tilted toward the sun and it is receiving direct rays.
At any moment, half of the earth is in _____________ and the other half is in _______________. daylight/ darkness
What keeps the earth from flying off in a straight line into space? sun's gravity
How long does it take the Earth to complete its orbit around the sun? 365 days
A completion of Earth's orbit around the sun is called a _______. revolution
The word equinox means____________ equal day and night
The word solstice means____________ "sun stops"
At the summer solstice, the northern hemisphere is pointed ________. Towards the sun.
On any day, the sun's rays feel hotter when it is ________ in the sky. higher
The higher the sun, the __________ the shadow it casts. shorter
Seasonal temperatures depend on ________ and ________. 1. angle of the sun's rays
The longer the sun is out on any day, the ______ will be the temperature. higher
AT the poles, the sun may never rise for months during _______ and may never set during __________. winter/summer
Dark area on the moon's surface - mare (maria, plural)
Light areas on the moon's surface lunar highlands
Why does only one side of the moon face the earth? Because the moon turns once on its own axis each time it orbits Earth.
What is the earth's satellite? the moon
What keeps the moon orbiting around the earth> gravity
What language what used to name structures on the moon? Latin
These were formed on the moon's surface when small objects in space collided with the moon. impact craters
Why are impact craters visible on the moon for long periods of time? Because the moon has no water or air to wear away the craters.
The maria on the moon where caused by what? Volcanic eruptions.
How long does it take the moon to orbit the earth? 27.3 days
The lunar highlands on the moon were caused by_________ impact craters
How much has the moon changed in the last hundred years? The moon has not really changed for the past 3 billion years.
Lunar soil has been caused by________________. weathering
The dark-colored rock that formed from lava is called _____________. basalt
What is the outer-most layer of the moon called? crust
What is the middle layer of the moon called? mantle
What is the inner-most layer of the moon called? core
The mantle is mostly made up of _______ and ________. iron and magnesium
What moon rock do scientists think came from the mantle due to its element content? basalt
What moon rock is found in the maria? basalt
How is "moon light" generated? Moonlight is really light from the sun reflected by the moon's surface.
What do we call the patters of lit and unlit portions of the moon that you see from earth? lunar phases
The moon cycle begins with a _____ ______. new moon
How does a new moon look from Earth? It looks like there is no moon.
What do we call the moon when it is growing bigger? waxing
At any given time, sunlight is shining on how much of the moon's surface? half
What do we call the moon when it is getting smaller? waning
What do we call it when the near side of the moon is more that half lit but not fully lit and is still waxing? waxing gibbous moon
What do we call the moon when the whole near side is lit by the sun? full moon
After a full moon when the moon appears to be shrinking, what do we call it? waning gibbous moon
Name the lunar phases from New moon to New moon. New moon - crescent - waxing gibbous - full - waning gibbous-crescent - new moon.
Crescent moons are most visible when? Daytime or sunrise or sunset.
When are gibbous and full moons mostly visible? nighttime
This occurs when a shadow makes the sun or the moon seem to grow dark. eclipse
In a ________ eclipse, the sun seems to darken. solar
In a ________eclipse, the moon seems to darken. lunar
What is the darkest part of the earth's shadow called? umbra
What is the lighter cone of the earth's shadow called? penumbra
What causes tides on earth? The moon's gravity
How many tides do you expect per day? About 4
Created by: lisabilo