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Respiratory EMT

NREMT Preparation

TermDefinition
Signs and Symptoms of Respiratory Distress Dyspnea, abnormal breathing rate or rhythm, abnormal lung sounds, altered level of consciousness (LOC), accessory muscle use, difficulty speaking, pulse oximeter below 94%, cyanosis, shallow breathing, unequal rise and fall of the chest, thoracic trauma
Accessory Muscle Usage Intercostal retractions, abdominal breathing, supraclavicular retractions, tracheal tugging, sternal retractions, nasal flaring, tripod positional breathing, seesaw breathing, pursed-lip breathing
CAUSES OF RESPIRATORY EMERGENCIES Causes can be due to medical conditions or traumatic injuries. Some causes are chronic, and others are acute.
Airway obstruction Blockage of airway
Anaphylaxis Onset can be almost immediate, and is usually within 30 minutes of exposure to an allergen.
Asthma An acute condition caused by bronchoconstriction and excess mucus production. It can be triggered by exercise, allergic response, illness.
Asthma Signs and symptoms include wheezing primarily upon exhalation, absent lung sounds in severe cases, and coughing.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) A slow, chronic disease process that obstructs and damages the lower airways and alveoli. COPD disorders include chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) >- Several causes, but largely due to cigarette smoking. COPD is chronic, so patients always experience some symptoms of the disease.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Signs and symptoms >- History of smoking or exposure to cigarette smoke, chronic productive cough, prolonged expiratory phase, abnormal lung sounds. COPD patients are often on home or portable oxygen.
Congestive heart failure (CHF) CHF is a cardiac emergency in which the heart does not pump effectively, leading to a backup of fluid and pulmonary edema.
Croup Croup (Iaryngotracheobronchitis) is inflammation of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea. It is highly infectious and usually occurs in children up to about three years of age.
Croup -Signs and symptoms » Croup is usually preceded by a cold and usually occurs in winter. » Croup often presents with a unique "barking" cough. » Croup often presents with stridor (a high-pitched sound in the upper airway).
Cystic fibrosis (CF) Genetic disorder leading to thick mucus production and chronic lung infections. Cystic fibrosis often causes death prior to entering adulthood.
Cystic fibrosis (CF)-Signs and symptoms include asthma like symptoms and gastrointestinal problems.
Pneumonia Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs. It is often a secondary infection and is a leading cause of pediatric deaths worldwide. Pneumonia is a concern for any patient that aspirates.
Pneumonia - Signs and symptoms » Often history of chronic or terminal illness, productive cough, weakness, chest pain, fever, low pulse oximeter reading.
Pneumothorax i. Pneumothorax is the accumulation of air in the pleural space. » It can occur spontaneously, or as a result of trauma. >- Asthma patients are at high risk for spontaneous pneumothorax.
Pneumothorax Signs and symptoms Possible history of respiratory problems or thoracic trauma >- Diminished or absent lung sounds in affected area
Pulmonary edema Pulmonary edema is the accumulation of fluid in the lungs. Causes include CHF, toxic inhalation, disease, and trauma.
Pulmonary edema Signs and symptoms include possible cardiac history, rales, pedal edema (swelling in the feet, ankles), and orthopnea (difficulty breathing while lying down).
Pulmonary embolism (PE) PE is the blockage of a pulmonary artery due to a blood clot or other obstruction.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) Signs and symptoms include possible history of recent surgery, or long bone fracture, chest pain, tachypnea, chest pain, hemoptysis, and sudden cardiac arrest.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) RSV is a respiratory infection very common in infants and children. It is extremely contagious. The virus can survive on surfaces, clothing, etc.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) Signs and symptoms include cold like symptoms, poor fluid intake, and signs of dehydration.
Hyperventilation syndrome Hyperventilation syndrome is characterized by rapid breathing and is often associated with distraught patients.
Hyperventilation syndrome can be a sign of serious underlying medical problems. Attempt to calm patient, remove from stressful situation. Never have patient breathe into a paper bag or oxygen mask without oxygen.
ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT Consider continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP), and metered-dose inhaler (MOl) or small-volume nebulizer (SVN) medications per local protocol and with approval of medical direction.
Created by: ditchdoctech