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Thermo Exam 1 Vocab

TermDefinition
system any element of space or matter specifically set aside for study
surroundings everything outside of the system
system boudary interface between the system and the surroundings (want to identify flows of energy into/out of system)
isolated system no mass, heat, work can cross the system boundary; does not interact with the surroundings in any way
adiabatic no heat transfer; no heat into or out of the system (perfectly insulated)
1st law of thermodynamics conservation of energy
property any quantity that describes the state of the system and whose value depends solely on the state of the system ( does NOT depend on the process)
internal properties define the state of the system ex: temperature, pressure, internal energy, enthalpy, specific volume
external properties velocity and height
intensive properties properties that are independent of mass ex: T, P, v, u, h, s
extensive properties properties that depend on mass ex: U, H, V
state principle any 2 independent intensive thermo properties are sufficient to determine the equilibrium state of a pure, simple, compressible substance
equilibrium the state of the system is not changing at all (all properties are fixed in relation to each other)
quasi-equilibrium state is changing slowly (slow enough to be considered in equilibrium)
dynamic equilibrium stuff is happening but on average nothing is changing (gas may turn into liquid and liquid into gas but they occur at the same rate)
intrinsic properties a property that is independent of other things (including context/ surroundings)
closed system always contains the same matter; there is no transfer of mass (control mass)
state the condition of the system as described by its properties
process a transformation from one state to another
steady state when none of the properties change with time
specific volume reciprocal of density; the volume per unit mass
absolute pressure pressure with respect to the zero pressure of a complete vacuum
power rate of energy transfer by work
thermodynamic cycle a sequence of processes that begins and ends at the same state
pure sustance is uniform and invariable in chemical composition
phase quantity of matter that is homogeneous throughout in both chemical and physical structure
saturation state a state at which a phase change begins or ends
critical point where saturated liquid and saturated vapor lines meet
vapor dome dome-shaped region composed of 2 phase liquid-vapor states
quality the ratio of mass of vapor present to the total mass of the mixture
enthalpy H=U+pV
perfect gas ideal gas with constant specific heat
Created by: kayla.russell