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Chapter 12

Terms and Definitions for Chapter 12. Vet. Med.Terminology

Axon Fiber than carries a nervous impulse along a nerve cell away from the cell body.
Cell body Part of the nerve cell containing the nucleus.
Dendrites Branching structures that receive the nervous impulse.
Myelin sheath Fatty tissue around the axon of a nerve cell. Helps to protect and insulate the axon. The sheath is lobed, creating gaps between layers of myelin along the axon. These gaps are called nodes of Ranvier.
Synapse Space between neurons in which the nervous impulse passes.
Terminal end fibers Distal portion of the neuron where the impulse leaves the cell.
Acetylcholine Neurotransmitter that causes muscles to contract and aids in “dream” sleep.
Dopamine Neurotransmitter that inhibits the firing of nerve cells which in turn relaxes the animal.
Endorphins Neurotransmitters responsible for reducing pain and for pleasure. Endorphins are the body’s natural morphine.
Epinephrine Hormone that acts as a neurotransmitter to increase heart rate and blood pressure.
Norepinephrine Neurotransmitter that causes vasoconstriction, increased heart rate, and increased blood pressure. Also called noradrenaline.
Serotonin Neurotransmitter responsible for relaxation. When levels are decreased, it leads to stress and behavioral disorders.
Microglial cells Phagocytic cells which protect the nervous system from infection.
Oligodendroglial cells Cells that form the myelin around the axon of the nerve cell.
Ependymal cells Cells that line the ventricles of the brain and surround the spinal cord. They produce cerebrospinal fluid that circulates around the brain and spinal cord.
Schwann cells Dual-action cells that form myelin around the axon and act as phagocytes against foreign organisms.
Dura mater Tough, outermost layer of the meninges. Blood can enter brain tissue through this layer.
Arachnoid membrane Middle layer of the meninges. Also known as the arachnoid mater.
Pia mater Innermost, delicate layer of the meninges which adheres to the brain and spinal cord.
Epidural space Space above the dura mater.
Subdural space Space below the dura mater.
Subarachnoid space Space below the subarachnoid membrane, where cerebrospinal fluid can be found.
Autonomic nervous system (ANS) Nerves that control involuntary functions of muscles, glands, and viscera.
Created by: andreac97