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Lecture exam 2

Development concept

Development The sequence of physical, psychosocial, and cognitive developmental changes that take place over the human life span. Simultaneous and ongoing process
Three developmental processes Growth, Differentiation, maturation
What is growth? Quantitative change. Increase in size and weight of the body.
What is Differentiation? Cells and structures becoming specialized. Both quantitative and qualitative.
What is maturation? Enables cells to function at higher level. Aging.
Normal human development Organized, processed, follows a predictable sequence across all life stages
Development Theories Freuds theory of psychosexual development; Eriksons theory of psychosocial development; Piagets theory of cognitive development; Kohlbergs theory of moral development.
Specific risk categories in development Prenatal; birth; social; underlying health conditions and status;
Development assessment Early identification of developmental problems, noticing risk factors; use of regular screening tools to assess for delay; rquires focused attention and intervention
Development assessment in infants and children Use of screening tools to assess growth, motor skills, social skills and language. Requires direct observation with planned developmental challenges
Development assessment in adolescents Assess for physical development, sexual development, home environment, social behavior, drugs and alcohol, sexual activity, suicidal tendencies. HEADSS : Home, education, activities, drugs, sexual activities, suicide risk
Development assessment in adults and older adults Less focused on development and more focused on functional ability, stress management, and coping skills
Principles of Interventions if there is a delay in development #1. Early identification and early intervention, #2. Specific interventions are dependent on thee category and type of development. #3. Management always requires interdisciplinary collaboration.
Developmental tasks Unique set of skills and competencies to be mastered at each developmental stage across the life span in order for the individual to cope with the environment. Determined by culture.
Types of development Physical, physiological, motor, social/emotional, cognitive, communication, adaptive
Cognitive development Working memory capacity, self regulation and processing and using of information about the environment.
Types of communication development Articulation, voice, fluency
Period of exuberence Language explosion period. Frontal lobe development. 18 months - 3 years. Critical time in speech
Adaptive development Range of skills that enable independence at home and in the community. Learned skills. They include self-care activities.
Expected development demonstrating the expected development and physical maturation, physiological function and or expected tasks with in or across the developmental domains that are associated with the chronological age.
Developmental delay developmental change was not found in an individual that can be found in 95% of others of the same chronological age range
Developmental Arrest Plateau of development. Change in some category and is noted when chronological age continues to progress but developmental change does not. Underlying health abnormalities or social conditions.
Global delay in development Lag in multiple neurocognitive developmental areas: speech and language, gross and fine motor; and personal and social development
Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) Significant developmental delay in basic milestones. Identified by three years old.
Freuds theory of psychosexual development 5 stages : oral (birth- 1), anal (1-3), phallic (3-6), latency (6-12), genital ( puberty- adulthood) Believed that under stress a person could regress to previous stage temporarily. If not temporarily then development would be arrested.
Eriksons theory of psychosocial development 8 stages: trust vs. mistrust; autonomy vs. shame and doubt; initiative vs guilt; industry vs inferiority; identity vs role confusion; intimacy vs. isolation; generativity vs self absorption; integrity vs despair
Piagets theory of cognitive development Explains how children innately organize their world and learn to think. 4 periods: Sensory motor ( birth -2); preoperational (2-7); concrete operational ( 7-11); Formal operations (11- adult)
Kohlbergs theory of moral development 3 levels: preconventional (18 months - 5 years); conventional (6-12); postconventional (12-19)
Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDSTII) Classic tool used to measure developmental status in children 1month - 6 years old. Screens gross motor, fine motor and language.
What is required for a diagnosis of a developmental problem? A thorough neurodevelopmental history, physical examination, advanced testing and assessment for specific delay and potential underlying associated health disturbances.
Created by: brittanyb62605