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Ch. 4 Pro/Eukaryotes

UCC Microbiology 108

What are examples of Prokaryotes? Macroorganisms= none known. Microorganisms= archaea and bacteria
What are examples of Eukaryotes? Macroorganisms= animals, plants. Microorganisms= algae, fungi, protozoa
What are DNA characteristics of a prokaryote? DNA not enclosed in nuclear membrane, one circular chromosome, not associated with histones (proteins), no membrane-enclosed organelles, cell wall complex (if found)
What is a prokaryote? Divide by binary fission, 0.2-20micrometer in diameter, Plasma membrane has no carbohydrates/no sterols, no cytoskeleton, ribosomes small, asexual reproduction
What are DNA characteristics of a eukaryote? DNA enclosed in nuclear membrane, has multiple chromosomes, associated with histones and non-histones, has membrane-closed organelles (golgi complex, mitochondria, lysosomes) cell wall very simple (if present)
What is a eukaryote? It divides by mitosis, 10-100micrometer in diameter. Carbohydrates and sterols are present and serve as receptors, has cytoskeleton, ribosomes are large, sexual reproduction involves meiosis.
How are the species of bacteria differentiated? 1) morphology -shape 2) chemical composition-detected by staining 3) nutritional requirements 4) biochemical activities 5) source of energy (sunlight or chemicals)
What are the shapes of bacteria? 1) bacillus-rod shaped 2)coccus-spherical 3)spiral-spirillum, vibrio, spirochete
What are examples of Coccus shaped bacteria? Round, spherical, oval, or elongated; arrangements include single, diplocci (pairs) , tetrad(groups of 4) sarcinae( cube-like groups of 8) streptococci (chainlike) staphylococci (grape like clusters)
What are examples of Bacillus shaped bacteria? Rod shaped. Arrangements include single, diplobacilli, streptobacilli, coccobacilli
What are examples of Spiral shaped bacteria? VIBRIOS-curved rods, SPIRILLA- Helical shape, SPIROCHETES- helical and flexible
What is monomorphic? Maintains a single shape. Most bacteria. Environmental factors may change their shape so their identification will be difficult
What is pleomorphic? Can have more than one genetically controlled shapes. Some bacteria. Ex= Rhizobium and Corynebacterium
What is glycocalyx? PROKARYOTIC CELL A sugar coat on the surface of many cells. Bacterial glycocalyx is viscous(sticky) ,has either one or both polysaccharide or polypeptide. Made inside and secreted to the cell surface. CAPSULE- organized/ firmly attached or SLIME LAYER if unorganized/loose
What is a capsule? PROKARYOTIC CELL Important VIRULENCE FACTOR. Often provide PROTECTION FROM PHAGOCYTOSIS. Allows pathogenic bacteria to ATTACH to surfaces. Can be used as source of NUTRITION when energy stores are low. Can protect cell from DEHYDRATION. Are antigenic (have antigens)
What is flagella? PROKARYOTIC CELL For motility, long filamentous appendages that propel bacteria. Flagellar protein (H antigen) are used to distinguish among serovars (varieties)
What are the 4 arrangements of flagella? PROKARYOTIC CELL MONOTRICHOUS- single polar AMPHITRICHOUS-both ends have flagella LOPHOTRICHOUS- 2 or more flagella at one end PERITRICHOUS-flagella distributed over entire cell
What are the 3 parts of a flagellum? PROKARYOTIC CELL Filament, hook, basal body
What is the filament part of a flagella? PROKARYOTIC CELL Long outermost region, has constant diameter, composed of flagellin (globular protein) arranged in intertwining chains, forming helix around hollow core
What is the hook part of flagella? PROKARYOTIC CELL Filament attached to it, wider than filament, composed of different protein
What is the basal body part of flagella? PROKARYOTIC CELL Has a small central rod inserted into series of rings. gram negative has 2 pairs of rings, gram postiive has 1 pair of rings. movement of flagellum results from rotation of its basal body
What is motility? PROKARYOTIC CELL The ability of an organism to move by itself. Rotation of flagellum is either clockwise or anticlockwise. Movement is in one direction=RUN movement in random directions=TUMBLE. Frequency of tumbles increases in response to a repellent
What is taxis? PROKARYOTIC CELL Movement toward or away from a stimulus. Positive taxis=toward an attractant, Negative taxis= away from a repellent.
What is axial filament? PROKARYOTIC CELL Found in spirochetes and also called ENDOFLAGELLA. Structure similar to flagella. Anchored at one end of spirochete. Made of bunches of fibrils beneath an outer sheath and spiral around the cell. Moves like a corkscrew
What are fibriae and pili? PROKARYOTIC CELL Found in many gram negative bacteria. Shorter, straighter, thinner than flagella. Made of Protein "pilin"
What is fimbriae? PROKARYOTIC CELL Enable a cell to adhere to surfaces. Number ranges from a few to several hundreds. If absent, no colonization of bacteria-no disease
What is Pili(sex pili)? PROKARYOTIC CELL Longer than fimbriae. One or two may be found per cell. Joins cells for transfer of DNA from one cell to another.
What is a cell wall? PROKARYOTIC CELL Semi rigid structure, protective in nature. Helps bacteria maintain their shape, point of anchorage for flagella, may contribute to the ability to cause disease, site of action of some antibiotics, some bacteria have no cell wall, archea lacks it.
What is peptidoglycan cell wall? PROKARYOTIC CELL Composed of repeating disaccharides made of monosaccharides NAG and NAM which make carbohydrate backbone. Adjacent rows linked by POLYPEPTIDES (includes tetrapeptide side chains w/ 4 amino acids attached to NAM). Penicillin interferes with final linking.
The cell wall of gram positive bacteria. PROKARYOTIC CELL Consists of many layers of peptidoglycan. Contain TEICHOIC ACIDs. Acid fast bacteria have MYCOLIC ACID (a waxy lipid) outside peptidoglycan. Some may have polysaccharides outside peptidoglycan.
What are teichoic acids? PROKARYOTIC CELL Provide cell wall's antigenic specificity. If linked to plasma membrane=LIPOTEICHOIC ACID. If linked to peptidoglycan layer= WALL TEICHOIC ACID
The cell wall of gram negative bacteria. PROKARYOTIC CELL Have one or few layers of peptidoglycans. No teichoic acids. Peptidoglycans are present in the PERIPLASM( space between outer and inner membranes). Cell wall contain an outer membrane outside peptidoglycan layer.
Gram negative bacteria- Outer membrane of cell wall. PROKARYOTIC CELL Has lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoproteins, and phospholipids. Protects from phagocytosis and action of complement. Barrier to certain antibiotics (penicillin), lysozymes, bile salts, detergents, dyes etc. Permeability is due to porins (form channels)
Gram negative bacteria- LPS. PROKARYOTIC CELL LPS has 2 parts. O POLYSACCHARIDE- antigenic and used for identification. LIPID A- ENDOTOXIN (it is toxic in hosts blood or GI tract. Causes fever/shock). In gram postiive bacteria secrete EXOTOXIN.
What are lysozymes? PROKARYOTIC CELL Found in some eukaryotic cell, tears, saliva, mucus, sweat, other body fluids, egg white and also in bacteriophages. Cuts the bond btw sugars in repeating disaccharide "back bone" of peptidoglycan
What are protoplasts? PROKARYOTIC CELL Gram positive cell wall is destroyed completely (metabolism can still take place). Are destroyed by OSMOTIC LYSIS
What are spheroplasts? PROKARYOTIC CELL Gram negative cell wall is not destroyed completely. Some outer membrane also remains. Are destroyed by OSMOTIC LYSIS
What are plasma membranes? PROKARYOTIC CELL Encloses cytoplasm. A phospholipid bilayer with peripheral/integral protein. Selectively permeable/ semi-permeable . Fluid mosaic model. Carries enzymes for metobolic reaction. Can be destroyed by alcohols/polymyxin. Have chromatophores, lacks sterols.
What is passive movement? PROKARYOTIC CELL Substances move from higher concentration to lower concentration w/o any expenditure of cellular energy.
What is active movement? PROKARYOTIC CELL Substances move from lower concentration to higher concentration, with the use of cellular energy
What is simple diffusion (passive movement)? PROKARYOTIC CELL Net movement following concentration gradient until equilibrium. Examples= O2 and CO2
What is facilitated diffusion (passive movement)? PROKARYOTIC CELL Substance moves from higher concentration to lower concentration by combining a plasma membrane protein called TRANSPORTER. Larger molecules are broken down by extracellular enzymes outside the cell before being transported inside the cell.
What is Osmosis? (passive movement) PROKARYOTIC CELL Movement of solvent molecules across a selectively permeable membrane. The movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane produces osmotic pressure (required to prevent movement of water)
What is hypotonic solution? (passive movement) PROKARYOTIC CELL Cells with weak cell walls may burst (ex=gram negative bacteria)
What is hypertonic solution? (passive movement)PROKARYOTIC CELL Most bacterial cells shrink and collapse as water leaves the cell by osmosis.
What is group translocation? PROKARYOTIC CELL Active transport ONLY IN PROKARYOTES. Substance is chemmically altered during transport across the membrane. Once inside the cell, plasma membrane is impermeable to it( remains inside cell). Energy is supplied by high-energy phosphate compounds like PEP
Created by: smwondr



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