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Ch.1 Fundamentals

UCC Microbiology 108

What are bacteria? unicellular, prokaryotes, different shapes, cell wall has PEPTIDOGLYCAN, reproduce by BINARY FISSION
What are archaea? prokaryotes, may/maynot have cell wall, cell wall (if present) lacks peptidoglycan, often found in extreme environments
What are the 3 groups of archaea? methanogens(produce methane), extreme halophiles (live in salty environments), extreme thermophiles (live in hot sulfurous waters), NOT PATHOGENIC
What are fungi? eukaryotes, either unicellular or multicellular, cell wall (if present) made of CHITIN, reproduce asexually or sexually, for nourishment: they absorb organic material from enviroment
What are the 3 groups of fungi? YEAST (unicellular), MOLD (multicellular),MUSHROOM(multicellular)
What are protozoa? unicellular, eukaryotes, live as free or as parasites, reproduce asexually or sexually, ingest or absorb organic material from enviroment
What are algae? unicellular/multicellular, eukaryotes, reproduce sexxually or asexually, cell wall made of CELLULOSE, photo-synthesizers, produce molecular oxygen and carbohydrates
What are helminths? parasitic flatworms, roundworms, multicellular, eukaryotes, not strictly microorganisms( during some stages of their life cycle, they are microscopic in size)
What are viruses? acellular, use electron microscope to be seen, very simple, core contain either DNA or RNA, core surrounded by protein coat( may have additional layer called ENVELOPE-a lipid membrane), obligate intracellular parasites, replicate only in living host cell
What is the system of Binomial Nomenclature? scientific names latinized, assigned two names. 1) genus- first name, capitalized. 2.)specific epithet- second name, not capitalized. Genus name is abbreviated after the first use.
What are the 3 domains? bacteria, archaea, eukarya( includes protists, fungi (yeast,molds, mushroom), plants, animals
Who is Robert Hooke? said life's smallest structural unit are CELLS, discovery marked the beginning of CELL THEORY
Who is Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek? first to observe live bacteria and other microorganisms , called them "animalcues", used simple microscope
What is spontaneous generation? theory that some form of life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter. AKA: theory of "abiogenesis"
Who is Francisco Redi? demonstrated that maggots do not arise spontaneously from decaying meat
Who is Louis Pasteur? disproved spontaneous generation. used beef broth in flasks with s shaped neck. aseptic technique can be used to block access of airborne microorganism. FERMENTATION: partial breakdown of sugars PASTEURIZATION: using heat to kill spoilage causing microbe
Who is Ignaz Semmelweis? demonstrated physicians who didn't disinfect their hands routinely transmitted puerperal or childbirth fever from one ob patient to another
Who is Robert Koch? discovered cause of anthrax. first to prove bacteria actually cause disease. KOCH'S POSTULATES: prove a particular microorganism cause a particular disease. proved GERM THEORY OF DISEASE
Who is Edward Jenner? introduced a vaccination procedure for smallpox.
Who is Paul Ehrlich? was looking for "magic bullet" that will destroy all pathogens without harming host. founded first synthetic drug called "salvarsan" (provided salvation from syphilis)
Who is Alexander Fleming? made first antibiotic and named it penicillen
What is Mycology? Study of fungi
What is Parasitology? Study of parasites (including protozoa), medical symbol "THE CADUCEUS" represent removal of parasitic guinea worm
What is Virology? Study of virus. Dmitri Iwanowski first discovered viruses.
What is Normal Microbiota? Microbes normally present in and on the human body. Don't harm us. Some benefit us by competing with harmful microbes, produce vitamins k and b.
What are benefits of microorganisms? 1.) recycle vital elements 2.) sewage treatment 3.) BIOREMEDIATION (clean up pollutants and toxic waste: ex: PSEUDOMONAS clean up oil spills 4.) biological insectisides
What is biotechnology? Use of microorganisms,cells, cell components to make a product like food, antibiotic, vitamins, enzymes from microbes.
What is recombinant DNA technology? Recombinant bacteria and fungi (GMOs) produce a variety of proteins including vaccines and enzymes
What is gene therapy? Missing or defective genes in human cells can be replaced by gene therapy. Can be inserted to cure: cystic fibrosis, LDL receptor deficiency, hemophilia, diabetes, sickle cell
What are EIDs? (Emerging infectious diseases) Due to : evolutionary changes in microorganisms, modern transportation, change of ecological conditions, reduction in immunity due to luxurious life style, research producing new strains, antimicrobial resistance, moving from urban to rural areas
What causes EIDs? Prions, bacteria, protozoan, fungi, viruses
What is Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy? (EIDs) Also called BSE or Mad Cow Disease. Caused by prion which creates holes in brain. Scrapie in sheep, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Spread by cattle feeding on infected sheep parts.
What is E.COLI 0157:H7? ESCHERICHIA COLI normally in large intestine. Beneficial: produces certain vitamins, digests indigestible food. This strain produces bloody diarrhea, can be fatal, transmitted through under-cooked meat/unpasteurized beverages.
What is MRSA? ( EIDs) Methicillin-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS. Penicillin and methicillin resistance
What is cryptosporidiosis? (EIDs) Caused by protozoa. Causes diarrheal illness in developing countries. Transmitted through drinking water supply, swimming pools, contaminated hospital supplies.
What is West Nile encephalitis? (EIDs) Inflammation of brain caused by west nile virus. Mosquitoes are vectors transmitting disease between birds, from birds to horses, from birds to humans
What is the avian influenza A? (EIDs) Primarily in waterfowl and poultry. Sustained human-to-human transmission has not occurred yet.
What is Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever? (EIDs) Caused by Ebola Virus. Causes fever, bloody diarrhea, blood clots, fatal, reservoir: bats, transmitted through contact with infected blood/body fluids/infected tissues
What is Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome? (EIDs) Virus discovered in Korea. Caused by new Hantavirus called Sin Nombre Virus. Transmitted to America through rats. Fever, cough, respiratory failure, very contagious and fatal.
What is AIDS? (EIDs) Caused by HIV which destroys CD4 lymphocytes. Infected person dies because of infections of other microorganisms or cancerous cells. Spreads through sexual contact, contaminated needle, blood transfusion, infected mother to fetus.
Paul Berg is associated with? Recombinant DNA
Who challenged the case for spontaneous generation with concepts of biogenesis? Virchow
Metchnikoff discovered? Phagocytosis
Who's discovery marked beginning of cell theory? Hooke
Created by: smwondr



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