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What is stimulated due to chilling and chemical changes in the blood of the newborn? Respirations
What does the first breath of the newborn open? Alveoli
What do respirations in the newborn initiate? Cardiopulmonary interdependence
What is the first thing to do to the newborn after it is placed skin to skin or in the crib? Dry infant to prevent heat loss via towels, warm blankets, or radiant warmer
What do you place on the newborn to prevent heat loss? Hat
What must be worn until newborns first bath? Gloves
How do you maintain cardiorespiratory function in the newborn? Wipe face, nose, and mouth to remove mucus & amniotic fluid, gentle bulb suction from nose & mouth, apply cord clamp
What signs of respiratory distress do you report? Persistent cyanosis, grunting respirations, flaring nostrils, sternal retractions, sustained respiratory rate >60 per minute, and sustained heart rate >160/min or <110/min
When does the newborn urinate? Within 24 hours of birth
When does the newborn pass meconium? 12-24 hours
How do you promote maternal - infant bonding? Skin-skin contact, breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth
What medications must be given within the first hour of birth? Erythromycin and Vitamin K
How is vitamin K administered? Vastus lateralis muscle before infant leaves delivery room
What does vitamin K do for the infant? Assist with blood clotting (naturally produced in flora of intestine's, which is absent in newborn
What time frame is supporting thermoregulation, observing bowel & urinary function, identifying the infant, security measures, umbilical cord care, observe for anomalies, v/s, weighing & measuring, and gestational age done? 1-3 hours after birth (Phase 2)
What does preterm/post term, diabetic mother, LGA/SGA, IUGR, asphyxiation, cold stress, and tocolytic medication during labor put the newborn at risk for? Hypoglycemia
What is the blood glucose level that indicates the newborn has hypoglycemia? <40 mg/dL
What are signs & symptoms of hypoglycemia in a newborn? Jitteriness, poor muscle tone, sweating, respiratory difficulty, low temperature, poor sucking, high pitched cry, lethargy, and seizure
What reflexes are full term infants born with, which help keep them alive? Blinking, sneezing, gagging, sucking, grasping, crying, swallowing, and lift their head while laying on abdomen
What kind of reflex is it when the crib is jarred, and infant draws legs up and arms fan out and then come toward midline in an embrace position? Moro
What kind of reflex causes the infant's head to turn in direction of anything that touches the cheek, in anticipation of food? Rooting
What postural reflex sometimes assumed by sleeping infants; head is turned to one side, arm and leg are extended on same side, and opposite arm and leg are flexed in "fencing" position? Tonic neck
What is it called when prancing movement of legs, seen when infant is held upright on exam table? Dancing
Swelling in soft tissues of scalp Caput succedaneum
Collection of blood beneath the periosteum of the cranial bone, does not cross the suture line? Cephalohematoma
Non ossified (soft spots) protect the head during delivery and allow further brain growth? Fontanels
When do infants create tears? 1-3 months
What can maintain temperature and promote sleep? Wrapping and gentle horizontal rocking
What happens once the cord is clamped and cut? Lungs take on respiratory function of breathing oxygen and removing carbon dioxide
How does development of muscle control proceed in a newborn? Head to foot, and from the center of the body to the periphery
What muscles are the first under control? Head and neck
What is the normal weight loss for the first 3-4 days after birth? 5-10% of its birth weight
What is smegma? White cheesy substance found under foreskin
What is a thin white or blood-tinged mucus may be discharged from the vagina caused by hormonal withdrawal from the mother called? Pseudomenstruation
What is physiological jaundice seen as yellow tinge to the skin; caused by the rapid destruction of excess red blood cells called? Icterus neonatorum
When is the Apgar test completed? 1 and 5 minutes after birth
How many points are possible in the Apgar test? 10
What score indicates no distress in Apgar test? 8-10
What part of the body do you wash first when giving a newborn a bath? Face and ears
What part of the body do you wash last when giving a newborn a bath? Head
How often are baths given to newborns? Every other day
What is used to give newborn a bath? Plain warm water
What immunizations are given to newborn prior to leaving hospital? Hep. B
What do you teach patient to report with newborns? Temperature >38C (100.4F) by axilla, refusal of two feedings in a row, frequent or forceful vomiting, and lack of voiding or stooling
What do you look for when caring for umbilical cord? Redness, discharge, or odor
What is a primary site for infection if not kept clean? Umbilical cord
What are the advantages of circumcision? Possible prevention of cancer, fewer UTI's, fewer occurrence's of sexually transmitted diseases
What are the disadvantages of circumcision? Infection and hemorrhage
What is the care for circumcision when the Gomco method was used? Thin layer of petroleum jelly guaze applied to end of penis to protect tip; tip of penis is very raw and tender
What is the care for circumcision when the Plastibell method was used? Rim usually falls off in 5-8 days (do not remove manually), bathe & diaper as usual, dark brown or plastic rim is natural
How often do you assess for bleeding after circumcision? Every 15 minutes for first hour and then every hour
When is the PKU test done? 24 hours after first feeding
How is PKU test done? Heel stick
What does PKU test look for? Phenylketonuria & hypothyroidism
What causes PKU? Faulty metabolism of phenylalanine and amino acid, and is found in all protein foods.
What does PKU result in? Mental retardation
What is a fatty protein that is high in lecithin and is necessary for lungs to absorb oxygen? Surfactant
What are manifestations of RDS? Tachypnea that may be accompanied by grunt-like sounds, nasal flaring, cyanosis, as well as intercostal and sternal retractions
Toxic response of lungs to oxygen therapy is called what? Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
What is a postterm newborn? Born beyond 42 weeks
What problems are associated with postterm delivery? Asphyxia, meconium aspiration, poor nutritional status, increase in red blood cell production, difficult delivery due to size, birth defects, and seizures
What is an elevation of serum bilirubin levels resulting in jaundice? Hyperbilirubinemia
Physiologic jaundice Benign, appears after 24 hours, results from breakdown of RBC's & immature liver
Pathologic jaundice Appears before 24 hours or is persistent after 10 days. Result of underlying disease, usually caused by blood group incompatibility or an infection, but can result from RBC disorder
Kernicterus Results from Hyperbilirubinemia with bilirubin levels at or higher than 25 mg/dL
What deposits in brain cells and can lead to cerebral palsy, epilepsy, or mental retardation? Bilirubin
What is the treatment for jaundice? Phototherapy and feed newborn every 3-4 hours to promote bilirubin excretion in stools
Who does cleft lip/palate have a higher incidence in? Asian Americans
How is cleft lip/palate treated? Surgical repair
What is the patient teaching for cleft lip/palate? Feeding techniques, oral hygiene, restraints to prevent injury to operative site, provide support to newborn, speak slowly and distinctly, play therapy for age should be quiet play
What are the benefits to cleft lip/palate repair? Improves feeding abilities, improves appearance, and enhances the bonding relationships
Created by: tandkhopkins