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Pharmacology Nurs101

pharmacology to help on a nursing exam for fundamentals

Federal Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 Set the standard for banning foreign substances
Food and Drug Cosmetic Act of 1938 Standard for drugs.. FDA came about from this act
Harris-Kefauver Amendment of the 1938 Act * Big Legislature Act that included: proof of effectiveness, stopped cheap, generic drugs, maintain purity level, and include side effects
Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 Indicated certain classes of drugs were needed
Schedule 1 drugs High potential for abuse ex: heroin, LSD, MJ
Schedule 2 drugs Methamphetamines ex: stimulants for Central Nervous System
Schedule 3 drugs Less abuse potential ex: Vicodin, Tylenol with codeine, suboxin
Schedule 4 drugs Low potential for abuse ex: Xanax & Valium
Schedule 5 drugs Cough syrup with codeine
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Sets the standard for pharmacology
Drug Enforcement (DEA) Works with narcotics
Drug Classification Indicates the: therapeutic effect of the medication symptoms the medication relieves ex: antipyretic = decreased fever
Drug Nomenclature Includes: Chemical name, Generic name, Trade/Brand Name
Pharmacokinetics Study of drug movement throughout the body
Pharmacokinetics has 4 processes a) absorption b) distribution c) metabolism d) excretion
Absorption Movement of the drug from site of administration into the bloodstream Bioavailability will be less if oral , more if IV delivery
Factors that influence absorption Surface area Blood flow Route of admin
Enteral Administration GI Tract, Highly variable, First Pass Effect Enteric coated, Sustained release
First Pass Effect is a phenomenon of drug metabolism when the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation.
Distribution Movement of the drug throughout body by circulation Only if not protein bound
Decreased Distribution if: Less vascular area Blood-brain barrier, Placenta membranes
Metabolism Enzymatic alteration of drug structure
Metabolism can: render inactive, convert to active form, increase effectiveness, promote excretion, or alter toxicity
Metabolism is affected by: Age, Drugs that increase it, Mal-nutrion,Polypharmacy
Excretion Elimination of drugs from the body
Excretion can happen in: Kidney- most often, Intestines, Lungs, Sweat, Salivary glands, Mammary glands-least common
Pharmacokinetic Variables Onset, Peak, Duration, Range, Half-life, Trough, Toxicity
Onset Duration of time it takes for drug to show therapeutic effects
Toxicity Degree to which the substance can be harmful
Pharmacodynamics The biochemical and physiological interactions of drugs in the body
Mechanism of Action can include: Receptor Interactions, Enzyme Interactions, Nonselective Interactions
Receptor Interactions Very Specific: On surface of the cell to turn on= agonist to turn off= antagonist
Enzyme Interactions Chemical reaction to make possible , also specific
Nonselective Interactions General, not limited to a certain organism, not specific
Indication why you are giving the drug? What response you expect to see?
Contraindication Why would you Not give this drug?
Pharmacotherapeutics Treatment of pathological conditions through the use of drugs
Types of Therapy can be: Acute, Maintenance, Supplemental, Palliative, Supportive, Prophylactic
Acute Therapy Right now, needed on the spot
Palliative Therapy Control patients secretions
Prophylactic Therapy Preventative measure
Monitoring would include: Therapeutic index, Drugs concentration, Patients condition, Tolerance & Dependence
Tolerance How much of a drug can be handled without significant side effects
Dependance Needing a drug to maintain wellness
Drug Interactions How well drugs can go together
Additive Effects Combined effect, but no additional gain
Synergistic Effects Increased gain = a high feeling when given together
Antagonistic Effects 2+ drugs = less of an effect when given together
Incompatibility DO Not Go together
Adverse Effects Bad
Adverse Drug Reaction Normal dose of a drug gives bad effects
Idiosyncratic Effects Odd things that don't typically happen to patients that take the drug
Teratogenic Effects Babies adversely affected by drugs
Mutagenic Effects Genetic Mutations caused by drugs
Carcinogenic Effects Drugs that Can produce cancer
1st Trimester Great time for concern b/c drugs can cross placental barrier via diffusion
Last Trimester Greatest time for concern b/c it allows the greatest amount of drugs to cross the placental barrier
Pharmacology and Nursing Need to understand drugs/meds and mechanism of action to provide optimal care and education
Legally Nurses are Responsible for their own actions
Beneficence Action done for benefit of others ex: resuscitating a drowning victim
Nonmalfeasance Doctors attempt to do No harm to a patient
ANA Code of Ethics Ethical & Professional standards
Fundamental Rule Never administer an unfamiliar medication
Medication Error Preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate use or patient harm while medication is in control of health care professional
Medication Errors can occur during: Prescribing, Dispensing, Administering, and Monitoring
Avoid Errors Nurses 6 rights for safe medication administration
Nurses 6 Rights - Right client, Right time, Right medication,Right dose, Right route, Right documentation
Created by: GoingfromLatoRN