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Nervous System


Regulation involves __________ and ______________. Coordination and control.
Two systems involved in regulation. Nervous and endocrine system.
Receptors/Sense Organs. Specialized structures that are sensitive to certain changes, physical forces, or chemicals in the internal or external environment.
Messages. Impulses.
Stimulus. Any factor that causes a receptor to trigger impulses in a nerve pathway.
Effectors. Organs that produce response to stimuli, can be a muscle or gland.
Response. Any change in or action by an organism resulting from a stimulus.
Pathway of a nerve response. (Eight steps) 1. Stimulus 2. Receptor 3. Impulse 4. Sensory neuron 5. Interneuron 6. Motor neuron 7. Effector 8. Response
What do examples of responses include? A muscle contracting or relaxing, a gland increasing or decreasing.
What do neurons/nerve cells assist with? Cell to cell communication.
Functional unit of the nervous system. Neurons.
What is the function of the neuron? They specialize in the transmission of impulses.
Dendrites. Short, highly branched fibers that are specialized for receiving impulses.
Cyton/Cell body. Contains the nucleus and most of the cytoplasmic organelles.
Axon. A long, fiber that extends from the cell body.
Terminal branches. Found at the end of the axon that transmits impulses to dendrites of other neurons.
Synapse. The junction between the adjacent neurons, the gap or space.
Neurotransmitters. Chemicals secreted into the synaptic gap by the end of a terminal branch to help transmit the message.
Examples of neurotransmitters. Acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin.
True or False: Neurotransmitters bind to a specific target cell receptor molecules to an adjacent neuron with a specific shape. True.
What makes the transmission of a nerve impulse possible? The difference in electrical charge between the outer and inner surfaces of the nerve cell membrane.
Sodium potassium pump. An active transport mechanism that pumps sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the nerve cells.
Sensory neurons. Carry impulses from receptors toward the spinal chord and brain.
Interneuron/Associative neuron. Replay impulses from one neuron to another in the brain and spinal chord.
Brain. A specialized group of nerve cells that control and coordinate the activities of the nerve system.
The ______________ and __________ ___________ make up the central nervous system. Brain, spinal chord.
Cerebrum. Largest part of the brain, sensory area (for five senses), motor area (voluntary movement), and associative area (memory, thinking).
LABEL BRAIN cool beans
Cerebellum. Coordinates and controls voluntary movements, such as balance and muscle tone.
Medulla. Controls heartbeat, breathing, involuntary activities, and peristalsis.
Spinal chord. The large nerve connected to the brain, controls reflexes and contains cerebrospinal fluid.
Reflex. An involuntary automatic response to a given stimulus.
Reflex arc. The pathway over which the nerve impulse travels in a reflex.
Created by: emarciante9