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ALS 4574

Test 1 material

Monotremes egg-laying mammals
What are some characteristics of monotremes? heavy fur coat w/ specialized spines, mammary glands, endothermic, males have real spur but doesn't function in terms of venom injection
Baby monotremes puggles
Echidnas called spiny anteaters, have spines for defense, small mouth at tip of nose, have pouch
Platypus aerodynamic swimmer, good insulative fur coat, has broad tail for fat storage, front feet are fully webbed while back feet are partially webbed, have no pouch, young suckle milk on ventral side of mom in fur
Marsupials young are born at an extremely young physiological age and are then nurtured in pouch
Animal behavior is insight into human behavior. T/F? True
Charles Darwin observed a lot and treated behavior as being very important for animal's survival; paved way for objective scientific experiment
J. Henri Fabre made detailed observations of animal in their natural surroundings and was the first to keep minute and orderly records
C. Lloyd Morgan showed that someone can often find a simpler process to explain the act of an animal and that the simplest may be the right one
Ivan Pavlov developed key concept of the conditioned reflex; experiments with dogs
Konrad Lorenz Austrian an animal's behavior was part of its equipment for survival and product of adaptive evolution
Niko Tinbergen attempted to understand how complex behavior machinery of each animal helps it meet many pressures of its environment; observed how birds recognize eggs
John Wiley and Sons wrote Social Behavior in Animals
Tinbergen's 4 Aspects of animal behavior ontogeny, function, phylogeny, causation
Ontogeny behavioral development
Function beneficial consequences of behavior which confer an increase in reproductive success on possessor's genotype
Phylogeny evolution of behavior
Causation proximal mechanisms that give rise to behavior
Evolution involves changes in gene structure of a population and differential reproduction of genotypes
Success from a genetic perspective, it's the ability to leave viable offspring
Silver Foxes Russia selected them for tamability; most tame 5% males and 20% females were chosen as parents; became more playful with humans over time
Artificial Selection Darwin believed domestic animals were modified through unconscious selection long before people selected for specific traits
What does selecting for anatomical or productivity traits change? Susceptibility to social stress, reproductive capabilities, behaviors, functional characteristics, and resistance/susceptibility to disease
World expert on cheetahs Laurie Marker
Cheetah physical attributes rough coat(not hunted for pelts), low fertility, high incidence of birth defects, weak immune systems
Cheetah social order females define social order; females are solitary, choose a mate and then raise cubs alone; males form coalitions of siblings who hunt together and may stay together for life
Cheetah reproduction females mature at two years old and leave their natal families at that time; mothers move their cubs to a new den every den almost every night for first 6 weeks
King Cheetahs cheetahs born with stripes instead of spots
Cheetah challenges 50-75% of cubs die within months of birth; hunted heavily in last century; genetic problems
Cheetah genetic problems very low sperm count; very little to no genetic variability(practically clones); many killed because of viral peritonitis
Tiger largest of cat species; usually hunt alone
Lion second largest of big cat species; females do most hunting; most sociable(live in prides)
Jaguar third largest of big cat species;
Behavior all processes by which an animal senses the external world and the internal state of its body and responds to the changes which it perceives
Social behavior any behavior caused by or affecting another animal
Sociobiology biological basis of social behavior, implying evolution as the basic explanatory tool
Inclusive fitness sum of an individual's fitness measured by reproductive success and the fitness of relatives, weighted in proportion to their genetic distance from individual
Physiological how body works
Whole animal behavior of intact animal
Physiological approach evaluation of control mechanisms which govern responses of components; examine basic components of living organism; study interactions among these components
Whole animal approach psychologists - learning often in labs; ethologists - naturally occurring, unlearned behaviors
Social facilitation phenomenon in which behavior of an animal increases occurrence of same behavior among its social partners
Allelomimetic behavior behavioral activities that have strong components of social facilitation, imitation and group coordination
History of individual individual is able to modify behavior in light of experiences; open genetic program
History of species individual is born with favorable responses "built in" to the nervous system as part of inherited structure; instinctive or closed genetic program
Species memory passed from each generation to offspring in the next generation
Epigenetics altering gene function without altering DNA; genes turn on or off depending on environmental conditions
Successful adaptation of rabbits european rabbits were introduced into Australia and adapted to the point of causing the decline of many Australia's midsized terrestrial mammals; RCD(rabbit calicivirus disease was released
Recombination results in transfer of genetic material from parent to offspring in species with two sexes
Selection differential survival of particular alleles or genotypes; can be natural or artificial; neutral selection may occur
Migration introduction of novel genetic material of loss of existing genetic material; changes in climate, bodies of water, mountain ranges can lead to different migrations along with speciation
Mutation alteration in genetic makeup changes DNA sequences; occurs at random; may inhibit development of individual; may allow development but not change much at population level
Random drift change in allelic frequencies due purely to chance; founder effects can influence population composition; population bottlenecks can occur and will certainly alter composition of genome
ESS Evolutionary Stable Strategies; activity which is consistently successful; frequency dependent; best strategy for individual depends on what majority of population is doing
Hawks and Doves two types of behavior within a species
What causes copulation frequency to be higher in some colonial species vs. others? sperm competition; colonial species where male is not always present
Inheritance of Intelligence theory someone can obtain eggs from models or brilliant people to produce "perfect child" from shopping on the internet
Temple Grandin wrote Genetics and Behavior of Domestic Animals
Blackcaps were experimented on to test what? duration and intensity of migratory restlessness; distinct differences of 4 populations; hybrids had intermediate values for migratory restlessness
What were results of cumulative number of completed matings(CNCM)for quail? CNCMs increased over time in high lines and decreased over time for low lines
Created by: David55900