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Space Exploration

Unit 5: Space Exploration Grade 9

What is a solstice? Happens in the summer and winter. They are marked the shortest and longest days of the year
What is an equinox? Happens twice a year. Once in the spring and once in the fall. They mark when then night and day are of equal length
What is a constellation A group of stars forming a recognizable pattern that is traditionally named after its apparent form or identified with a mythological figure
What is an azimuth? It is the angular distance along the horizon to the location of the object ... N=0 degrees
What is altitude? the distance an object appears to be above the horizon (zenith is the highest point overhead)
What is an eclipse? When a solar body moves into the shadow of another body
What types of eclipses are there ? Lunar and Solar. Lunar is when the earth blocks the suns light from reflection off the moon (SUN - EARTH - MOON) Solar is when the moon blocks the light from the sun from reaching the earth (SUN - MOON - EARTH)
What is retrograde motion? It looks like a planet is going in a backwards direction within its orbit. This is not the case it just appears to due to how other planets are rotating around the sun..
What is the Doppler Effect? It refers to a moving sound source. The closer you are, small wavelengths, high frequency, louder sound. Whereas the further away you are, bigger wavelengths, low frequency, softer sound. (ambulance pic)
The Blue vs Red shift?? Can refer to brightness of stars. closer together, higher frequency, the more blue the light is. The further apart, lower frequency, the more red the light is
What is the celestial sphere? Celestial means outside of the earth. Imaginary lines outlining equinoxes, and solstice. South = winter solstice
What is spectroscopy? The act of dividing light into individual colors
What are the components of a star? They are hot dense balls of gas. They give off a continuous spectrum. They have an atmosphere
How were stars first classified? Strongest were called A stars then B stars etc. They are classified by their strengths of their hydrogen lines
How did Annie Jump Cannon change the ways stars are classified? She merged the classifications. Reclassified the stars based on their strengths and appearances of many different absorption lines in their spectra. Around 1901
Hotter stars put out more light in what end of the spectrum? Cooler stars? Hotter stars put out more light in the blue end of the spectrum. Cooler stars peak in the red
What are stars made of? Mainly of hydrogen, but also some helium
What is the scale of star temperature The hottest stars were O then slightly cooler B, followed by AFGKM Oh Be A Fine Guy Kiss Me
What is the surface area of the sun? It is around 5500 Celsius and is a G2 star
What is luminosity the intrinsic brightness of a celestial object (as distinct from its apparent brightness diminished by distance). It depends on the mass and size of the star
What is the best way to handle mass amounts of data? Look for trends
What is the most important graph in all of astronomy? The HR graph. Invented by Ejnar Hertzsprun and Henry Norris Russell, it describes the relationship between the luminosity and temperature of a star
How do stars make energy? By fusing hydrogen into helium in their cores, like the sun
Why are larger stars generally hotter? Due to the fact that they can squeeze their cores faster (pressure in the stars core)
On the stars diagram- what are the stars on the lower left? They are hot, blue, white, and very faint. They are generally small. They are white dwarfs and eventually run out of hydrogen fuel
On the stars diagram - what are the stars on the upper right? They are large, red giants, luminous. (above them are the super giants)
What is the definition of a telescope? An instrument that aids in the observation of distant/remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (EMR)
How many main categories of telescopes are there and what are they? There are three main categories. Optical telescopes, radio telescopes, and space telescopes
Who is credited for inventing the first category of telescope (optical telescope?) Hans Lippeshey invented the telescope
Who made the first documentation/ observations using this device? Galileo Galilei
What did Galileo Galilei observe using the telescope? The rough, uneven surface of the moon
What is the definition of Heliocentric? Who supported it? Having the sun as the center. Galileo Galilei supported this model of the solar system
The difference between a refracting telescope and a reflecting telescope A refracting telescope bends the light rays whereas a reflecting telescope bounces the light rays
Describe the basic structure of a refracting telescope. It has a primary lens where all the light rays go, it then an optical lens that magnifies the result of the rays
Describe the basic structure of a reflecting telescope It has a primary lens where all the light rays go, it then has a primary mirror (concave shaped) which reflects the rays to a secondary mirror, which then reflect the rays to the magnifying lens
What do radio telescopes gather outside the range of the visible spectrum? Electromagnetic radiation
Are the radio telescopes large or small in comparison? large
Describe interferometry It is a technique of combining the observation of two or more telescopes to produce images with better resolution
What is the definition of a space telescope? They are telescopes mounted on satellites or travelling probes beyond our atmosphere
What are some examples of space telescopes? Hubble space telescope, Kepler space telescope
What type of telescope collects the most forms of radiation? Space telescopes. They collect UV, x-rays, and gamma rays
What are sundials? (ancient) They are ancient tools used to measure the passage of time
What is a Quadrant? (ancient) It is a simple instrument of medieval origin. It is used to determine the altitude of a heavenly body.
What is an astrolabe? (ancient) it is similar to a quadrant. It is used to map out star positions in the sky.
What is a cross - staff? (ancient) It was a 14th century tool that was used to measure the angle from the moon to another celestial object
what is the other name for a reflecting telescope? a segmented mirror telescope
What is rocketry? The science of launching propelling object through the atmosphere
Who first practiced rocketry? The Chinese through rocket arrows?
What speed does it take for an object to get out of the gravitational pull of earth? 28,000km/h
What is the fundamental law of physics? An action causes an equal and opposite reaction
Describe the average shape/structure of a rocket It has a long narrow body, with a cone at the top that helps with aerodynamics. It has a combustion chamber towards the bottom of the body with an opening for the combustion chamber at the very bottom
What are the three main parts of a modern rocket? The structural/mechanical part, the payload, and the fuel (which has most mass)
What is the main danger of a rocket? The explosive nature of the fuel.
What are some of the most common effects of micro gravity on the human body? Bones expand because they have much less pressure on them. Heart does not have to pump as hard. Muscles do not get used as much and are therefor weakened.
What are some options for water supplies in space? Go somewhere that has water - hard to do. Bring a lot of water with you. Bring a little water with you and recycle it.
Created by: marthavalmana