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Earth Science Test

TermDefinition
Rock cycle The series of processes in which rock forms
Bowen’s reaction series the simplified pattern that illustrates the order in which minerals crystallize
Igneous rock rock that forms when lava cools.
Porphyritic contains crystals or crystalline particles
Vesicular very fine grained
Felsic light in color and high in feldspar
Mafic dark colored and high in magnesium
Granite light-colored igneous rock with large grains,
Obsidian dark, glassy, hard, igneous
Basalt dark, fine-grained, igneous
Pumice very light, porous, igneous
Sedimentary rock formed by the deposition and subsequent sedimentation
Compaction the process by which the porosity of a given form of sediment is decreased
Cementation binding together of broken particles
Chemical sedimentary rocks (evaporates) formed by precipitation of water
Organic sedimentary rocks formed from sediment that is organic
Clastic sedimentary formed from mechanical weather debris
Sorting water or air to separate sediments
Angularity sediment is moved from source/particles collide
Halite type of salt
Coal carbonized plant matter
Limestone made of organic matter, light, sedimentary
Shale made of flaky clay, dark grayish, smooth, sedimentary
Sandstone made of sand sized minerals/rock frags, light, sedimentary (can be reddish)
Conglomerate (ex. Puddingstone) course, round frags
Breccia angular frags cemented together
Contact metamorphism only small area of rock is changed by heat
Foliated rock texture is arranged in bands
Non-foliated no bands
Slate forms in outer zone around magma, dark, smooth, metamorphic
Schist course, can be split into small/thin plates, metamorphic
Gneiss banded structure, course, metamorphic
Quartzite non-foliated, hard
Marble carbonate minerals and metamorphic rock
Continental drift the hype by Alfred Wegener that long ago the continents once formed a single landmass (Evidence - fossils that should be found in one area a found all over the globe)
Sea-floor spreading ocean floor is moving very slowly
Mid-ocean ridge underwater mountain ridge (Characteristics - formed by plate tectonics.)
Lithosphere Earth’s crust
Asthenosphere the upper layer of the earth's mantle
Divergent Boundary tectonic plate moving away
Convergent Boundary plates colliding
Transform Boundary plates slide past each other
Subduction zones plate moves under another
Ring of Fire the Ring of Fire is an area in the Pacific Ocean where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions happen
Plate boundary evidence As the tectonic plates move away from spreading zones, they collide with one another
Rifting Earth’s crust breaks
Terrane plate has geologic history
Craton stable block of earth surface
Shield domed volcano with gently sloping sides
Accretion is a process by which material is added to a landmass
Pangea super continent
Panthalassa single large ocean
Elastic rebound how far energy can spread
Focus where the earthquake starts
Epicenter where seismic rupture starts
Seismic waves generated by impulse
Fault zone form because of intense stress
Seismograph measures and records details of earthquakes, such as force and duration.
Seismogram a record produced by a seismograph.
Magnitude strength of earthquake
Intensity amount of damage
Tsunami giant ocean wave
Seismic gap area along fault where few quakes occur
Magma molten rock underground
Lava above ground
Vent opening at the earth's surface from which volcanic material, as lava, steam, or gas, is emitted.
Hot spot volcanically active area
Fissure linear volcanic vent through which lava erupts, usually without any explosive activity
Viscosity stickiness of lava
Pyroclastic material ash, lava fragments carried through the air, and vapor
Caldera forms when magma chamber empties
REGIONAL metamorphism is a change in texture, structure or chemical composition
SORTED can't see the particles very well at all
Earthquakes occur worst with a shallow focus
Records vibrations seismograph
Intensity is on the Modified Mercalli scale
Oceanic produces MAFIC/magnesium rich lava
Pahoehoe is a “ropy” type of lava
Volcanism is any activity that involves movement of magma towards the Earth's surface
Created by: Parker H.