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sun and stars


The size and masses of stars Most visible star are medium-sized
Actual motion of stars Stars rotate on an axis
composition of stars Stars are made of the same elements as earth. The most common element is Hydrogen. Helium is the second most common.
Analyzing starlight Displayed colors from spectograph. Emission- bright lines Absorption-dark lines Continuous Dark lines revel composition
Characteristics of stars Energy comes from nuclear fusion
Protostar Hot condensed object at the center of a nebula that will become a new star when nuclear fusion reactions begin.
Nebula Large cloud of interstellar gas and dust that collapses on itself, due to its own gravity, and forms a hot condensed object that will become a new star.
Absolute magnitude Brightness an object would have if it were placed at a distance of 10 PC; classification system for staler brightness that can be calculated only when the actual distance to a star is known.
Chromsphere Layer of the sun's atmosphere above the Photosphere and below the corona that is 2500 kilometers thick and has a temp. around 30,000 k at its top.
Binary star Describes two stars that are bound together by gravity and orbit a common a center of mass.
Fission process in which heavy atomic nuclei split into smaller lighter atomic nuclei.
Fusion The combining of lightweight nuclei into heavier nuclei; occurs in the core of the sun where temp. and pressures are extremely high.
Blackholes Remains of a supernova too massive to become a neutron star. Small extremely dense remnant of a star whose gravity is so immense that even light can not escape its gravity.
Neutron star After the supernova the core contracts into a dense ball of neutrons.
The final stage (massive stars) Fusion ends with iron. Energy is transferred from the collapsing core to the outer layers that explode outward. (supernova)
The final Stage (medium stars) Planetary nebula created becomes a white dwarf.
After the main stage (stage 3) The star becomes a giant or a supergiant.
The main-sequence The longest stage in the life of a star. massive stars fuse atoms faster and live shorter. (10 million years)
Star formation (stage 1) Stars begin ad a nebula commonly 70% hydrogen, 28% helium, and heavier elements protostars- the center of the disk is a region of dense matter.
classifying stars Graphing surface temperature against luminosity shows a constant pattern. Hertzsprung- Russel diagram H-R diagram Describes the life cycles of stars highest temp on left highest luminosity on top cool dim red stars in lower right of the diagram
Classifying stars (continued) Hot bright blue stars in upper left of diagram most stars fall within a region called the main sequence
Distance to stars Distance measured in light years. The distance light travels in one year.
Doppler Effect Moving toward earth causes a shift toward blue color. shift toward blue color moving away from earth causes a shift showing that they are moving away from earth.
H-R diagram Diagram that release stellar characteristics; class, mass, temperature, magnitude, diameter, and luminosity.
Supernova massive explosion that occurs when the outer layer of a star is blown off.
Apparent magnitude Classification system based, on how bright a star appears to be; does not take distance into account so it cannot indicate how bright a star actually is.
Photosphere Lowest layer of the suns atmosphere that is also visible. Surface has an average temp. of 5800 k about 400 k thick.
Corona Top layer of the sun's atmosphere that extends from the top of the chromosphere and ranges in temperature. 1 million - 2 million k
Composition of the sun 75% of the suns mass is hydrogen. 24% of the suns mass is helium.
Temperatures of stars Surface temperature is indicated by color. blue stars- highest Red stars- much cooler Yellow stars- about 5,500 (10,000)
The suns Interior The core- fusion of hydrogen into helium. Radioactive layer- energy moves outward in from of electron magnetic waves. convection zone- Energy moves upward in convention (Boiling) Photosphere- layer seen from earth
The suns interior (con.) The corona- magnetic fields keep particles from escaping into space.
Created by: mckennaschulz



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