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Micro module 7

Microbial genetics Pt 1

genetics study of heredity
genotype genes that organisms contain
phenotype the expression of a gene
gene a segment of DNA and it codes for a functional product
purines double ring
which nucleotide's are purines? adenine and guanine
pyrimidines single ring
which nucleotide's are pyrimidines? cytosine, thymine, and uracil
plus strand the side to tell what you what protein to make
minus strand is the template strand that replicates the gene strand
genetic code linear sequence of bases
replication DNA -->DNA
transcription DNA-->RNA
translation RNA-->protiens
tRNA is the interpreter from RNA->proteins
semi-conservative replication the new daughter strands have each parent strand as a template
3’ carbon has the OH group, used for dehydration synthesis
5’ carbon has the phosphate group, dead end
antiparallel the strands are oriented in opposite directions from each other
ends of the molecule refer to the ‘5 prime’ or ‘3 prime’
where does the energy come from to do replication? free nucleotide's in the cytoplasm
DNA polymerase proofread's the bases added and get's rid of them if they don't match correctly
how many phases does DNA replication have? three, unwinding, complimentary base pairing & joining
unwinding the parent strands are unwound by an enzyme called helicase & the hydrogen bonds are ‘unzipped’
what enzyme unwinds the parent strand? helicase
complimentary base pairing free bases in the nucleus spontaneously form hydrogen bonds with the complimentary bases in the parent strands
joining DNA polymerase III makes a covalent bond between the sugar and the phosphate group on the daughter strand
DNA polymerase III adds the base nucleotide's to the strand
what prevents the upstream tangling of DNA by nicking it in places and allowing it to unravel? Topoisomerases
replication fork the point at which the DNA is unwound to allow for replication
what is needed to start a new strand? RNA polyermase
what is RNA polyermase also called? primase
what is DNA polymerase I? is the proofread for DNA and removes the primer, fixes any mistakes
what is DNA ligase? seals the nicks between adjacent, unattached nucleotides
transcription synthesis of a complementary strand of RNA from a DNA template.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the genetic code – the working copy of the gene, carried into protiens
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is an integral part of ribosome structure – the site of protein synthesis, not translated into proteins
Transfer RNA (tRNA) carries the free amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis, not translated into protiens
Ribozymes and spliceosomes RNA enzymes
3 Stages of transcription initiation, elongation, termination
codons groups of three nucleotide's, that code for a particular amino acid
Created by: skittles6876