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Unit 4: W&A

Water and Air

TermDefinition
Aquifer An underground layer of permeable rock that contains water
Atmosphere The outer layer of gases of a large body in space
Biosphere All living organisms on Earth, in the air, land, and water
Cryosphere The frozen layer of Earth's surface
Condensation Process of water vapor cooling and changing into liquid water
Conduction The transfer of heat energy from one substance to another through direct contact (two objects touching)
Convection The transfer of energy from place to place by the motion of heated gas or liquid in Earth's mantle
Downwelling and Upwelling When water moves to different levels of depth due to surface currents
Evaporation Process by which liquid turns to gas
Global wind Wind belt that circles the Earth
Ground water The water beneath the surface of the ground (consisting mainly of surface water that has seeped down)
Hydrosphere The water on or surrounding Earth's surface (includes the water of the oceans and in the atmosphere)
Impermeable Water can't pass through the substance
Lithosphere The crust and upper mantle of Earth
Ocean current A mass of moving ocean water
Permeability The ability of water to pass through porous rock or sediment
Pollution The presence of a harmful or poisonous substance in the environment
Precipitation Process by which water, in any form, falls from the atmosphere to Earth's surface
Radiation Energy that travels across distances as certain types of waves
Runoff Process of water flowing over the surface of the ground
Surface water Water that collects on the surface of the ground
Transpiration Process of water evaporating through the leaves of plants
Watershed The area of land where all of the water that is under it or drains off of it goes (collects in the same place)
Water table Underground surface of soil or rock that is saturated with water