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DNA and Replication

DNA structure, function, and replication

TermDefinition
Complementary base pair A matching pair of nitrogenous bases such as A = T or C = G
Nucleotide A phosphate, deoxyribose sugar, and a nitrogenous base
Antiparallel Two strands of the DNA molecule run in opposite directions
What is the function of DNA? To code for proteins
What type of macromolecule or biomolecule is DNA? A nucleic acid
What is the monomer of DNA? A nucleotide
Where in eukaryotic cells is DNA located? The nucleus
Where in prokaryotic cells is DNA located? The cytoplasm
What does DNA stand for? Deoxyribonucleic acid
Why is the order of bases in DNA so important? Because a specific segment of DNA, called a gene, codes for a protein that creates a physical trait
What is the complementary base pair to adenine? Thymine
What is the complementary base pair to thymine? Adenine
What is the complementary base pair to cytosine? Guanine
What is the complementary base pair to guanine? Cytosine
What makes up the so-called 'backbone' of DNA? The phosphate group and sugars
What makes up the 'rungs' of the DNA ladder (the part you climb)? The nitrogenous bases
What is the first step in the process of replicating a cell's DNA? To separate the double helix/unzip the double helix
Which enzyme is responsible for 'unzipping' the double helix? Helicase
What enzyme has to lay down RNA primers so that DNA polymerase knows where to begin? Primase
What is the second step in DNA replication? RNA primase lays down primers so that DNA polymerase knows where to begin
Which enzyme links together the sugar-phosphate backbone of the Okazaki fragments? Ligase
Which enzyme adds the new nucleotides to the template DNA strand? DNA polymerase
When does DNA replication happen? During interphase
Given the sequence CAAGTA, what is the complementary sequence? GTTCAT
When there is an error in the replication process, what is it called? Ex: A = G instead of A = T A mutation
What is the shape of the DNA molecule? A double helix
Created by: jdesrochers