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All eukaryotic cells are composed of... Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus
Plasma membrane function Covers and protects the cell, controls what goes in and out, links to other cells, flies certain "flags" to tell other cells what it is
Fluid Mosaic Model Describes the arrangement of molecules, such as phospholipids and proteins, within the membrane. Lipids act as a barrier, while proteins act as gatekeepers.
Phospholipids Form a lipid bilayer in the membrane made up of hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails.
Glycoproteins Membrane proteins with a carbohydrate group attached that protrude into the extracellular fluid
Glycocalyx Sugary coating surrounding the membrane
Integral proteins Extend into or through the bilayer
Transmembrane proteins Span the entire lipid bilayer
Peripheral proteins Attach to the inner or outer surface but do not extend through the membrane
Ion Channels (Integral) Allows specific ion to move through water filled pore
Carriers (Integral) Carries specific substances across membrane by changing shape (ex: amino acids)
Receptors (Integral) Recognizes specific ligand and alters cell's function in some way
Enzymes (Integral and Peripheral) Catalyzes reaction inside or outside cell depending on which direction the active site faces
Linkers (Integral and Peripheral) Anchors filaments inside and outside the plasma membrane providing structural stability and shape for the cell
Cell Identity Markers (Glycoprotein) Distinguishes your cells from anyone else's
Selective Permeability The membrane allows some substances across but not others
Passive Transport Processes Diffusion of solutes, diffusion of water, and facilitated diffusion
Active Transport Processes Various types of transporters are used and energy is required. Low to high
Diffusion Passive spread of particles through random motion from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
Diffusion factors Concentration gradient, temperature, surface area, and diffusion distance
Facilitated Dissuion Requires a specific channel (Channel-Mediated Facilitated Diffusion) or a carrier molecule (Carrier-Mediated Facilitated Diffusion)
Osmosis Net movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration
Tonicity Concentration of salt solutions in the blood and elsewhere
Hypotonic Hemolysis (explodes)
Hypertonic Cremation (shrinks)
Antiporters Carry two substances across the Membrane in opposite directions
Symporters Carry two substances across the membrane in the same direction
Vesicle Small spherical sac formed by budding off from a membrane
Endocytosis Materials move into a cell in a vesicle formed from the plasma membrane (3 types: receptor mediated, phagocytosis, and bulk phase pinocytosis)
Exocytosis Vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents into the extracellular fluid
Transcytosis Combination of endocytosis and exocytosis
Cytosol Intracellular fluid surrounding the organelles; the site of many chemical reactions
Cytoskeleton Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules
Centrosome Consists of two centrioles and pericentriolar material; located near nucleus
Cilia Short, hair-like projections from the cell surface that move fluids along the cell surface
Flagella Longer than cilia (ex. sperm cell's tail), move an entire cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum Network of membranes in the shape of flattened sacs or tubules
Rough ER A series of flattened sacs with a surface studded with ribosomes, which produce proteins, that is connected to the nuclear envelope
Smooth ER Network of membrane tubules that do not have ribosomes. Synthesizes fatty acids and steroids, and detoxifies certian drugs
Golgi Complex Consists of 3-20 flattened membranous sacs, cisternae, that modify, sort, and package proteins in vesicles to transport them to different destinations
Lysosomes Vesicles that form from Golgi that contain powerful digestive enzymes
Peroxisomes Smaller than lysosomes, abundant in liver, detoxify toxic substances
Proteasomes Continuously destroy unneeded, damaged, or faulty proteins, fund in the cytosol and nucleus
Mitochondria Powerhouse of the cell; generates ATP, self-replicate, contain own DNA (from mother only)
Cristae Series of folds of the inner mitochondrial membrane
Matrix Large central fluid-filled cavity
Nuclear Envelope Double membrane that separates the nucleus from cytoplasm
Nuclear Pores Numerous openings in the nuclear envelope that control movement of substances b/w nucleus and cytoplasm
Nucleolus Spherical body that produces ribosomes
Genes Cell's hereditary units, control activities and structure of the cell
Chromosomes Long molecules of DNA combined with protein molecules
Mitosis Cell cycle in which body cell duplicates and divides in two
Homologous chromosomes Two chromosomes that make up each pair
Diploid cells Somatic cells that contain two sets of chromosomes
Interphase Cell replicates its DNA during S phase
Prophase Chromatin fibers change into chromosomes
Metaphase Microtubules align the centromeres of the chromatid pairs at the metaphase plate
Anaphase Chromatid pairs split at the centromere and move to opposite sides and are then called chromosomes
Telophase Two identical nuclei are formed around the identical sets of chromosomes now in their chromatin form
Cytokinesis Division of cell's cytoplasm; plasma membrane constricts at its middle (cleavage furrow)
Meiosis Reproductive cell division that occurs in the gonads that produces with half the number of chromosomes
Haploid cells Gametes contain a single set of 23 chromosomes
Created by: 1237810412967709



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