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Caroline

ch 21 head and face injuries

QuestionAnswer
how many bones does the skull contain 28
How many auditory ossicles function in hearing 6
where are the 6 auditory ossicles located 3 on each side of the head
what consists of 8 bones that encase and protect the brain cranial vault
the paired parietal bones join together at the sagittal suture
the parietal bones abut the frontal bone at the coronal suture
the occipital bone attaches to the parietal bones at the lambdoid suture
fibrous tissues called ____ link the sutures of the skull together fontanelles
at the base of each temporal bone is a cone shaped section of bone known as the mastoid process
The floor of the cranial vault is devided into how many compartments? Name them 3. Anterior fossa, middle fossa, posterior fossa
what forms a prominent bony ridge in the center of the anterior fossa, and is the point of attachment for the meninges crista galli
what are the cranial nerves for smell the olfactory nerves
what is the chamber inside the nose that lies between the floor of the cranium and the roof of the mouth the nasal cavity
what lies on either side of the foramen magnum and are the points of articulation between the skull and the vertebral column occipital condyles
what is the irregular shaped bone in the posterior nasal cavity called palatine bone
what bone extends along the front of the skull below the orbit zygomatic arch
how many facial bones form the structure of the face, without contributing to the cranial vault 14
two major nerves provide sensory and motor control to the face. Name them the trigeminal nerve (5th cranial nerve)and the facial nerve (the seventh cranial nerve)
The ophthalmic nerve supplies sense to what the skin of the forehead, upper eyelid, and conjunctiva
the maxillary nerve supplies sense to what the posterior part of the side of the nose, lower eye lid, cheek, upper lip
the mandibular nerve supplies sense to what the muscles of chewing, skin of the lower lip, chin, temporal region, and part of the external ear
the facial nerve supplies sense to what the muscles for facial expressions
Several bones associated with the nose contain cavities known as the paranasal sinuses
What is the largest movable bone forming the lower jaw and containing the lower teeth mandible
what "floats" in the superior aspect of the neck just below the mandible hyoid bone
the eyeball is also know as the globe
the globe is about ___ '' in diameter 1
what nerve innervates the muscles that cause motion of the eyeballs and the upper eyelids oculomotor nerve (3rd cranial nerve)
the whites of the eye are also known as the sclera
what is the transparent anterior portion of the eye that overlies the iris and pupil the cornea
what is the delicate mucus membrane that covers the sclera and internal surfaces of the eyelids but not the iris the conjunctiva
what is the pigmented part of the eye that surrounds the pupil the iris
what is behind the pupil and iris? It is a transparent structure that can alter it's thickness to focus light on the retina at the back of the eye the lens
what lies in the posterior aspect of the interior globe, is a delicate, 10-layered structure of nervous tissue that extends from the optic nerve retina
the anterior compartment of the eye is filled with a substance that if lost will gradually be replenished. what is it aqueous humor
the posterior chamber of the eye is filled with a substance that if lost will not replenish. What is it vitreous humor
a jelly like substance that maintains the shape of the globe, is vitreous humor
the optic nerve transmits an image to the brain, where it is converted into conscious imigaes in the visual cortex
which vision facilitates visualization of objects directly in front of you central vision
which vision gives us visualization of lateral objects while looking forward peripheral vision
what secrets and drains tears from the eye lacrimal apparatus
the ear is devided into 3 anatomical parts. what are they external, middle, and inner.
vibration of sound waves in against the tympanic membrane sets up vibration in the ossicles
how many permanent teeth does the normal adult mouth contain 32
the top portion of the tooth is called what the crown
what forms the principal mass of the tooth dentin
the sdockets in the gum for the tooth is called alveoli
the ridges between the teeth are called alveolar ridges
the chewing of food by the teeth is known as mastication
what arteries run laterally to the cervical vertebrae in the posterior part of the neck the vertebral arteries
the brain occupies how much of the cranial vault 80%
there are 4 major regions of the brain. Name them the cerebrum, diencephalon, brain stem, and the cerebellum
the brain metabolizes how much of the bodies glucose. In % and in mg/min 25%, 60mg/min
what is the largest portion of the brain, and what is it responsible for the cerebrum, higher functions such as reasoning
what is the largest portion of the cerebrum and what is it responsible for the cerebral cortex, it regulates voluntary skeletal movement, and level of awareness
what lobe is important for voluntary motor action and personality traits frontal lobe
what lobe controls the somatic, and voluntary sensory and motor functions for the opposite side of the body, as well as memory and emotions parietal lobe
what lobe is reponsible for processing visial information the occipital lobe
what lobe is the speech center located in the temporal lobe
where do you find the thalmus, subthalmas, and hypothalmas the diencephalon
what is located beneath the cerebral hemispheres in the inferoposterior part of the brain the cerebellum
what does the brain stem consist of the pons, midbrain, and the medulla
what is responsible for maintenance of consciousness RAS, reticular activating system
what has an important role in coordination of motor movements and posture basal ganglia
what influences emotions, motivation, mood, and sensations of pain and pleasure limbic system
protective layers that surround and enfold the entire CNS are called Meninges
the outer most meninges layer is known as the dura mater
what structure seperates the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum and brain stem tentorium
The second meningeal layer is a delicate transparent membrane called the arachnoid
the third meningeal layer is known as the pia mater
where are the meningeal arteries located between the dura mater and the skull
bleeding above the dura mater is known as what type of bleed epidural hematoma
where is CSF manufactured in the ventricales of the brain
how much force is required to fracture the maxilla up to 150g
what is dental malocclusion misalignment of the teeth
what is a Le Forte I fracture a horizontal fracture of the maxilla
what is a Le Forte II fracture a pyramidal fracture involving the nasal bone, and the inferior maxilla
what is a Le Forte III fracture a fracture of all midfacial bones, seperating the entire midface from the cranium
what is diplopia double vision
what is the most common type of orbit fracture inferior
~ how many eye injuries occure in the united states each year 1.5 million
if there is a laceration of the globe itself what shouldn't you do apply pressure to the eye
what is bleeding into the anterior chamber of the eye that obscures vision Hyphema
what is seperation of the inner layers of the retina from the underlying choroid retinal detachment
what is the most important symptom of an eye injury visual loss that does not improve when the patient blinks
what is the condition in which the pupils are not of equal size Anisocoria
If part of the globe is exposed what should you do gently apply a moist sterile dressing to prevent drying
when flushing an eye, you should always flush from what side of the eye the nose side, so you don't flush the material into the unaffected eye
what are the three different types of contact lenses. hard, rigid gaspermeable, and soft
when is the only indication for removing contact lenses in the field a chemical burn, because the chemical might be trapped under the contact lens
What is the Pinna the ear
when caring for an avulsed tooth, what shouldn't you do, and what should you preserve it in touch the root, and cold whole milk or sterile water or saline
what should you do with an open neck would seal it with an occlusive dressing immediately
what is tracheal transection when the trachea is seperated from the larynx
what can be used as a fast way to seal a small hole in the chest ECK electrodes
what does BTF stand for brain trauma foundation
according to BTF how many deaths occur anually from severe head injury 52,000
scalp lacerations often what indicate deeper more severe injuries
skull fractures are broken down into four different types. What are they Linear, depressed, basilar, open
Which fracture accounts for 80% of all fractures to the skull linear skull fractures
what skull fracture results from high-energy direct trauma to a small surface area of the head with a blunt object Depressed
What 2 regions of the skull are most susceptible to a depressed skull fracture due to bone thickness the frontal and parietal
What skull fracture is associated with high energy trauma, but they usually occur following diffuse impact to the head Basilar
What is defined as a traumatic insult to the brain capable of producing physical, intellectual, emotional, social, and vocational changes traumatic brain injury
Normal ICP in adults ranges from 0-15mm Hg
what is the pressure of blood flow through the brain CPP, Cerebral profusion pressure
what is the average pressure against the arterial wall during a cardiac cycle MAP, Mean arterial pressure
What is the critical minimum threshold the minimum CPP required to adequately to profuse the brain
what is the minimum CPP required to profuse the brain 60mm Hg
A CPP below 60mm Hg does what doubles the patients chance of dying
The body responds to a decrease in CPP by increasing the MAP. This is known as autoregulation
Created by: klindley