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Bio ecology definiti

Community All the populations in a defined area
Ecosystem A community plus all the non-living matter in the area, e.g a forest includes not only the inhabitants but also the non-living parts of the soil
Heterotroph Organism that obtains its energy by feeding on other organisms
Consumer Organism that feeds on other organisms or parts of other organisms which it kills in the process.
Herbivore Animal that feeds on plants
Carnivore Animal that feeds on other animals
Omnivore Animal that feeds on both plants and animals
Parasite Organism that feeds on another organism (the host) without killing it
Decomposer Organism that feeds on dead organic matter
Energy and nutrient flow The energy that drives an ecosystem is ultimately converted to heat which cannot be re-used and is radiated out into space. Energy flow through and ecosystem is thus linear. Matter on the other hand is recycled
Food Chain A series of organisms through which energy flows; first link is always a plant
Grazing food chain Food chain in which the first link is living plant matter and the second kink is a herbivore
Detritus food chain Food chain in which the first link is dead plant matter and the second link is a decomposer
Food web A system of interconnected food chains
Trophic level Position of an organism in a food chain; p;ants occupy the first trophic level, herbivores the second, ect
Food pyrimid A graphic representation of the structure of a food chain, depicted as a pyramid having a broad base formed by producers and tapering to a point formed by end consumers.
Succession Progressive change in the composition of a community over time, leading eventually to a stable climax community. Primary succession begins with initially hostile conditions that are gradually made more fertile as a result of colonisation in pioneer plants
Stratification Vertical layering of the vegetation in a forest into emergents, canopy, sub-canopy, shrub layer, ground layer
Zonation Change in the composition of a community along a physical environmental gradient, e.g up a rocky shore of up a mountain
Habitat The place where an organism lives
Environment The sum total of all the factors in the surroundings that influence an organism
Niche The way an organism makes its living, its role in the community
Adaptation Any inherited feature that increases the chances that an organism will survive and reproduce
Physical environment Includes factors such as temperature, light intensity, humidity, salinity, pH, wind, and waterflow
Biotic environment Includes factors such as food, organisms, competition, predation, paratism
Created by: brianalyonswh



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