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K103 terms

Exam 1 Terms

TermDefinition
Convergent evolution organisms evolved similar characteristics as a result of exposure to similar environmental changes (natural selection)
macroevolution large-scale evolutionary changes; over a long period of time; organism moves into new taxonomic group at or above species level
microevolution minor evolutionary changes; over a few generations; causes allele changes or genotype frequency changes
modern synthesis explanation of evolution that utilizes molecular genetics, phylogeny, natural selection, mutations. etc.
population individuals of the same species
species successfully interbreeding organisms that produce fertile offspring
vestigial structure remnants of structures that used to be functional in ancestral organisms
balanced polymorphism a type of genetic polymorphism in which 2+ alleles persist in a population due to natural selection
bottleneck effect an event that rapidly, randomly, decreases population size
cline gradual change in species' phenotype and genotype ; involves geographically separate populations of the same species
directional selection natural selection selects against one of the phenotypic extremes and favors intermediates and other phenotypic extremes
disruptive selection natural selection selects against the intermediates and favors phenotypic extremes
founder effect when a small group of individuals starts a new colony and a new population arises from the original group; group has genetic variation
frequency-dependent selection preserves balanced polymorphism; the frequency of a phenotype in a population determines the fitness of that trait
genetic drift change in allele frequencies from one generation to the next
genetic polymorphism genetic variation among individuals of a population
geographic variation (cline) difference in genotype and phenotype frequencies in a population; caused by an environmental gradient
heterozygote advantage preserves balanced polymorphism; heterozygote has a higher level of fitness than either homozygote
inbreeding mating of genetically similar of genetically close individuals
stabilizing selection natural selection selects against phenotypic extremes and favors intermediate phenotypes
adaptive radiation evolution of several species from one or a few ancestral species; occurs in a short time
allometric growth growth of different body parts at different rates
allopatric growth formation of 2 new species following the physical separation of individuals of a single population
gradualism evolution occurs due to slow, steady, changes over time
hybrid inviability egg and sperm not compatible ; no production of viable zygote and embryo
hybrid sterility abnormal gametes of interspecies; able to produce zygote
hybrid breakdown hybrid unable to reproduce successfully. F1 and F2 generations may be produced
hybrid zone area of overlap between related species or subspecies in which interbreeding occurs
paedomorphosis retention of juvy features in adult body form
preadaptation a feature that functioned in one way originally but adapted to perform new function
prezygotic barrier prohibits fertilization aka zygote formation
postzygotic barrier occurs after fertilization; prevent hybrid from living to multiply
punctuated equilibrium evolution proceeds with period of little or no change and then rapid changes occur over a short period of time
sympatric speciation formation of 2 new species within the geographic region of the parent population; no physical barrier is present but reproductive isolating mechanism are
autotroph producer: makes orgo compounds from inorgo materials.e.g photosynthesis
heterotroph consumer; can't synthesize its food
coacervate a type of protobiont contain enzymes for complex synthesis
endomembranous theory single membrane organelles originated by budding off internal surface of plasma membrane
endosymbiont an organism that live in or on another
endosymbiosis theory double membrane organelles arose from a symbiont relationship in which the endosymbiont living inside cell lost its autonomy and became incorporated as an organelle within that cell
microsphere type of protobiont; formed by adding water to abiotically formed polypeptides
protobiont a vesicle of abiotically produced polymers
stromatolite a column of prokaryote cells that become fossilized
Created by: makanjuolae