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SLSBio11Evolution JN

SLS Bio11 Evolution JRN

VocabularyDefinition
Complementary base pairing either of the nucleotide bases linked by a hydrogen bond on opposite strands of DNA or double-stranded RNA: guanine is the complementary base of cytosine, and adenine is the complementary base of thymine in DNA and of uracil in RNA. Compare base pair.
Convergent evolution In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related (not monophyletic), independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches.
Divergent evolution the process by which a species evolves into two or more descendant or different forms; also, the process of tracing two or more species back to a common ancestor
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. (DNA)
Double helix In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.
Evolutionary change Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. Evolutionary processes give rise to biodiversity at every level of biological organization.,
Gene flow the alteration of the frequencies of alleles of particular genes in a population, resulting from interbreeding with organisms from another population having different frequencies.
Genetic drift random changes in the frequency of alleles in a gene pool, usually of small populations.
Gradual change model Charles Darwin believed that evolution was a slow and gradual process. ... They termed this mode of evolution "punctuated equilibrium." This means that species are generally morpholgically stable, changing little for millions of years.
Mutation A Mutation occurs when a DNA gene is damaged or changed in such a way as to alter the genetic message carried by that gene. A Mutagen is an agent of substance that can bring about a permanent alteration to the physical composition of a DNA gene.
Natural selection the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring. The theory of its action was first fully expounded by Charles Darwin and is now believed to be the main process that brings about evolution.
Nitrogenous base A nitrogenous base is simply a nitrogen containing molecule that has the same chemical properties as a base. They are particularly important since they make up the building blocks of DNA and RNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and uracil.
Non-random mating Nonrandom mating occurs when the probability that two individuals in a population will mate is not the same for all possible pairs of individuals. When the probability is the same, then individuals are just as likely to mate with distant relatives.
Punctuated equilibrium model Punctuated equilibrium (also called punctuated equilibria) is a theory in evolutionary biology which proposes that once species appear in the fossil record they will become stable, showing little evolutionary change for most of their geological history.
Speciation The formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution.
Sugar-phosphate backbone Sugar phosphate backbone. The sugar phosphate backbone is an important stuctural component of DNA. It consists of 5-carbon deoxyribose sugars and phosphate groups. These sugars are linked together by a phosphodiester bond.
Created by: Jnewfield
 

 



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