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caroline

Ch 22 spine injuries

QuestionAnswer
What is the average age at the time of injury for SCI 32.1 years
80% of patients with SCI are younger then 40 years
55% of patients who suffer SCI are between what ages 16 and 30
what are the top three causes of SCI. list them in order MVA, acts of violence, and falls
Name three diseases that can cause SCI Polio, spina bifida, Friedreichs ataxia
In the first few months of a SCI the ortality rate is as high as what 20%
the spine consists of how many bones 33
What is the vertebral body the anterior weight bearing structure
what comprises the junction of each pedicle, and lamina on each side of a vertebra the transverse spinous process
What is formed by the fusion of the posterior lamina and serves as an attachment site for muscles and ligaments. the posterior spinous process
what 2 bones are uniquely suited to allow for rotational movement of the skull the atlas (C1) and the axis (C2)
How many vertebrae are in the thoracic spin 12
what helps to stabilize the thoracic the rib attachments
the sacrum is formed of what 5 fused vertebrae that form the posterior plate of the pelvis
the coccyx is made up of 3-5 small fused vertebrae
Each vertebrae is seperated and cushioned by _______ ________ that limit bone wear and act as shock absorbers intervertebral disks
The vertebral column can sustain normal flexion and extension of _____-_____% without stretching the spinal cord 60-70%
the ACNS consists of what the brain and the spinal cord
what connects the spinal cord to the remainder of the brain the brain stem
the entire CNS is enclosed by a set of three membranes collectively known as what meninges
the meninges consist of an outer, middle and inner layer. What are they the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.
The meninges float in what CSF
The spinal cord extends from the base of the skull to where L2
What is a collection of individual nerve roots called cauda equina
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there 31
Nerve roots occasionally converge into a cluster called ______ that permits peripherial nerve roots to rejoin and function as a group plexus
The sensory nerves are what type of nerves? Efferent or Afferent Afferent
The motor nervers are what type of nerves? Efferent or Afferent Efferent
The sensory and motor nerves are reponsible for what type of function of the spinal cord somatic
What part of the brain is responsible for the sympathetic nervous system hypothalamus
A spinal cord injury at or above the _____ may disrupt the flow of sympathetic communication T6
Cervical flexion injuries result from what forward movement of the head. Typically from repid deceleration, or from a direct blow to the occiput
anterior wedge fractures, are they stable or unstable they can be both
a cervical injury that often results from high acceleration forces is known as what Rotation-flexion injuries
What type of injury often occures from forces being transmitted through the vertebral bodies and directed either inferiorly through the skull or superiorly through the pelvis or feet Vertical compression
What type of injury often occures from the head and neck extending to far and can result in a fracture and/or ligamentous injury of variable stability hyperextension
Primary spinal cord injury is the injury that occurs at the moment of impact
what is characterized by a temporary dysfunction of the spinal cord that lasts from 24-48 hours spinal cord concussion
What type of injury often occures from a progression of the primary SCI secondary spinal cord injury
What are 3 key elements in the care of a patient with possible SCI Minimizing heat loss, and maintaining oxygenation and perfusion
What type of injury involves cmplete disruption of all tracts of the spinal cord, with permanent loss of all cord mediated functions below the level of transection Complete spinal cord injury
What type of injury often occures when the patient retains some degree of cord mediated function incomplete spinal cord injury
What type of injury results from the displacement of bony fragments into the anterior portion of the spinal cord, often due to flexion injuries or fractures Anterior cord syndrom
What type of injury occurs from hyperextension injuries to the cervical area, and present with hemorrhage or edema to the central cervical segments central cord syndrome
Posterior cord syndrome is associated with what type of injury extension injuries
A condition associated with penetrating trauma with hemisection of the spinal cord and complete damage to all spinal tracts on the involved side. Brown-sequard syndrome
What type of injury refers to the temporary local neurologic condition that occurs immediately after spinal trauma spinal shock
What type of injury results from the temporary loss of autonomic function, which controls cardiovascular function, at the level of injury neurogenic shock
what is the classic presentation of neurogenic shock a hypotensive, bradycardic patient whose skin is warm, flushed and dry below the level of the spinal lesion
the diaphragm is inervated by what the phrenic nerve C3-C5
what are the ideal ETco2 levels 35-45mm Hg
Where do you assess pulse and what do you assess for radial and carotid, for rate, quality, regularity, and equality
What affects will hypothermia have on hemoglobin it will impair it's ability to unbind oxygen from it
In a patient with multi system trauma fractures of the ribs, sternum, clavicla, scapula, or pelvis are usually associated with what other type of injury SCI
Regions of the body innervated by the motor components of spinal nerves are known as myotomes
Sensor commponents of spinal nerves innervate specific discrete areas of the body surface called dermatomes
what is hyperesthesia hyperacute pain to touch
when immobilizing pregnant patients you should do what with the backboard tilt it at a 15-20 degree angle to displace weight off of the uterus
what is the benifit to placing the spine in the neutral in-line position this provides the most space for the spinal cord and may reduce cord hypoxia and excess pressure on the tissue
about 80% of adults placed on a backboard will be in_______ and require ______-______'' of padding extension, 1/2''-2''
what part of the population is a high risk of spontaneous commpression fractures of the spine older patients, especially female, with a history of osteoporosis
Where is herniation most commonly found in the back L4-L5, L5-S1
Created by: klindley