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Chapter 3: Tissues

4 major tissues that make up the human body? epithelial connective muscular nervous
Classification of the epithelial tissues is based on? covering and lining
What are the general features of epithelium? Is it a vascular or an avascular tissue? cells are densely packed, little extracellular space have various surfaces: lateral, apical (free surface), basal surfaces basement membrane: a thin extracellular layer avascular
Simple Squamous Structure: single layer of flatten cells with dust-shaped nuclei and sparse cytoplasm Function: diffusion and filtration provide a slick, friction-reducing lining in lymphatic and cardiovascular system
Simple Cuboidal Structure: Single layer of cube like cells with large, spherical central nuclei Function: secretion and absorption
Simple Columnar Structure: Single layer of tall cells with oval nuclei, many contain cells Function: absorption and secretion
Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Structure: single layer with different heights, some don't reach are surface Function: secretion and propulsion of mucus by ciliary action
Transitional epithelium Structure: Several cell layers, basal cells are cuboidal, surface cells are dome shaped Function: Stretches to permit the dissension of the urinary bladder
Holocrine Glands mature cell dies and becomes secretory product, sebaceous gland of the skin
Merocrine Glands Form the secretory product and release it from the cell, salivary glands
Apocrine Glands Pinched off portion of cell is secretion, human
Endocrine Glands NO DUCTS produce hormones secretion include amino acids, proteins, glycoproteins, and steroids
Exocrine Glands DUCTS more numerous than endocrine glands secrete their products onto body surfaces(skin) or into body cavities
Example of Connective Tissue blood, cartilage, bone, adipose tissue
Type of cells are in the connective tissue? Fibroblast Mast cell Plasma cell Macrophages
Fibroblasts function: present in all CT; secrete fibers and ground substance
Mast Cell secrete histamine
Plasma Cell secrete antibodies
Macrophages engulf foreign agents and damaged cells
3 type of fibers in the connective tissue? Collagen Fibers Elastic Fibers Reticular Fibers
What tissue contains all 3 type of the fibers? areolar connective tissue
Collagen Fiber Most common in the body, dermis level consists of protein collagen very strong, but also flexible, provides high tensile strength in most CT: bones, cartilage, tendon, ligaments
Elastic Fiber consist of elastic, fibrillin elasticity plentiful in skin, blood vessel walls, and lung tissue
Reticular Fiber consists of collagen and a coating of glycoprotein provide support and strength also from Stroma of many soft organs, spleen
What type of tissues are avascular? Cartilage, epithelium
What is the strongest cartilage? Fibrocartilage
What tissue would take the longest time to heal? Cartilage
What two types of tissues make up an epithelial membrane? An epithelial membrane consists of an epithelial layer and an underlying connective tissue layer.
What type of the membrane lines the cavity that opens to the exterior? Mucous membrane (mucosa)
What type of the membrane does not open to the exterior? Serous membrane (serosa)
Areolar Loose connective tissue has several types of cells including fibroblasts, macrophages, etc. has all three types of fibers - ground substance is semifluid located in subcutaneous layer of skin, blood vessels, etc. provides strength, elasticity, and support
Dense Irregular connective tissue contains fibroblasts scattered among randomly oriented (i.e., irregularly arranged) collagen fibers llocated in dermis, periosteum, heart valves, etc. provides strength
Dense Regular Connective tissue contains rows of fibroblasts located between numerous parallel (i.e., regularly arranged) bundles of collagen fibers forms tendons and most ligaments provides strong attachment between various structures
Adipose Connective Tissue contains adipocytes that store triglycerides located in subcutaneous layer, around organs, etc. - white adipose tissue insulates, stores energy reserves, supports and protects various organs; brown adipose tissue generates heat in the newborn
Created by: _melgozacaroo15



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