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Biology Chapter 12.1

Biology Chapter 12.1 Terms and Definitions

sex chromosomes one of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
autosome any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
sex-linked trait an autosomal trait that is influenced by the presence of male or female sex hormones
linked gene one of a pair of genes that tend to be inherited together
chromosome map a diagram of gene positions on a chromosome
map unit in chromosome mapping, an increment of 1 percent in the frequency of crossing-over
germ cell mutation mutation occurring in gametes
somatic cell mutation a mutation that occurs in a body cell
lethal mutation a mutation that affects the organism so much that it can't survive
deletion the loss of a part of DNA from a chromosome
inversion a reversal in the order of the genes, or of a chromosome segment within a chromosome
translocation the movement of a segment of DNA from one chromosome to another, which results in a change in the position of the segment
nondisjunction the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis 1 or the failure of sister chromatids to separate during mitosis or meiosis II
point mutation a mutation in which only one nucleotide or nitrogenous base in a gene is changed
substitution a mutation in which one nucleotide is replaced by another nucleotide
frameshift mutation a mutation, such as the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in a coding sequence that results in the misreading of the code during translation because of a change in the reading frame
insertion mutation a mutation in which one or more nucleotides are added to a gene
Created by: conoverc20



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