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Biology Chapter 12.1

Biology Chapter 12.1 Terms and Definitions

TermDefinition
sex chromosomes one of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
autosome any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
sex-linked trait an autosomal trait that is influenced by the presence of male or female sex hormones
linked gene one of a pair of genes that tend to be inherited together
chromosome map a diagram of gene positions on a chromosome
map unit in chromosome mapping, an increment of 1 percent in the frequency of crossing-over
germ cell mutation mutation occurring in gametes
somatic cell mutation a mutation that occurs in a body cell
lethal mutation a mutation that affects the organism so much that it can't survive
deletion the loss of a part of DNA from a chromosome
inversion a reversal in the order of the genes, or of a chromosome segment within a chromosome
translocation the movement of a segment of DNA from one chromosome to another, which results in a change in the position of the segment
nondisjunction the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis 1 or the failure of sister chromatids to separate during mitosis or meiosis II
point mutation a mutation in which only one nucleotide or nitrogenous base in a gene is changed
substitution a mutation in which one nucleotide is replaced by another nucleotide
frameshift mutation a mutation, such as the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in a coding sequence that results in the misreading of the code during translation because of a change in the reading frame
insertion mutation a mutation in which one or more nucleotides are added to a gene
Created by: conoverc20