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Gr.9 Geography Exam

Plate Tectonics The theory that the Earth’s outer shell is made up of individual plates that move, causing earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains, and the formation and destruction of areas of the crust.
Landform Regions Of Canada Canadian Shield: Thin soils, forested land, good fertile soil Lowlands: Flat land areas Highlands: Mountainous areas with mountains and hills Types: Cordillera, Interior Plains, Canadian Shield, Appalachian, Great Lakes, Arctic, Hudson Bay
Vegetation Regions of Canada Tundra Boreal and Taiga Deciduous Mixed Forest Cordillera Grasslands
Climate regions of Canada -Arctic -Cordilleran -South-Eastern -Atlantic Maritime -Pacific Maritime -Prarie -Boreal -Taiga
Maritime Climate/Oceanic Climate Climate in areas near an ocean. The annual temperature range (summer to winter) is small and the precipitation is high.
Continental Climate Climate in areas far from an ocean. The annual temperature range is large and precipitation is low.
Windward Side (upwind) The side or direction that the wind is blowing from. The moisture in the air then gets sucked out and forms a cloud. The cloud than cause rainfall on the windward side. This takes place in the mountain ranges.
Leeward Side (downwind) The side or direction that the wind is coming onto after the moisture sucks out. This side is mainly warm and dry climate and it rarely rains on this side. This takes place in the mountain ranges.
Climate Graph (also known as a climograph) A graph that summarizes climate data for a particular location.
Annual Temperature Range The numerical difference between the minimum and maximum values of temperature observed in a given location during a period of time (e.g., in a given day, month, year, century) or the average (average of all temperature ranges in a period of time).
The Rock Cycle: Igneous Rocks Igneous Rocks form from the cooling and crystallization of magma. It cools down as it comes closer to the Earth’s surface.
The Rock Cycle: Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary Rocks:Process of weathering, erosion and deposition. Breaks down the rock, transports them to shores (using ice, water, wind, gravity) then nature’s pressure helps push the sediments together to form a rock.
The Rock Cycle: Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic Rocks form from igneous and sedimentary rocks which have a lot of heat and pressure exerted onto them. These naturally modified rocks are called sedimentary rocks.
Intrusive Rocks Intrusive rocks are igneous rocks that form from crystallized magma beneath the earth's surface.
Extrusive Rocks Extrusive refers to the mode of igneous volcanic rock formation in which hot magma from inside the Earth flows out.
LOWERN Factors: L L stands for Latitude. It means that depending on how close or how far it is to the equator, the climate differs.
LOWERN Factors: O O stands for Ocean Currents. It means that certain ocean currents have different temperatures. Warm ocean currents warm the air above it, which warms the coast. Cold ocean currents cool the air above it, which cools the coast.
LOWERN Factors: W W stands for Wind and Air Masses. It means heated ground causes air to rise which results in lower air pressure. As it rises it cools and descends to the ground resulting in high air pressure. This cycle repeats which creates wind.
LOWERN Factors: E E stands for Elevation. It means the higher up you are, the colder and drier it will be. When air rises it expands due to low air pressure which causes it to cool.
LOWERN Factors: R R stands for Relief. As air is forced to rise over a piece of land (e.g. a mountain) the temperature decreases and condensation increases. Once the air mass goes over the mountain the temperature and evaporation increases but condensations decreases.
LOWERN Factors: N N stands for Near Water. Water heats up and cools down slower than land does, having a moderating effect. On colder days, the water heats up the land, whereas on hotter days, the land is cooled down by the water. These areas experience maritime climate.
Parts of Soils O: Loose and partially decayed organic matter A: Mineral matter mixed with some humus E: Zone of capillary and leaching action B: Accumulation of clay, iron, and aluminium from above C: Partially altered bedrock R: Bedrock
Materials in Soil Minerals Organic Matter Organisms Air/Oxygen/Gases Water
Leaching Action The process by which soluble materials in the soil, such as salts, nutrients, pesticide chemicals or contaminants, are washed into a lower layer of soil or are dissolved and carried away by water.
Capillary Action Capillary action enables soil moisture to move in any direction within the soil as water moves from wet areas to drier areas.
Coniferous Trees and Deciduous Trees Coniferous Trees: A type of tree that produces cones and evergreen needles. Also, it doesn't shed annually. Deciduous Trees: A tree or shrub shedding its leaves annually.
Types of Maps Political Map Physical Map Topographic Map Economic/Resource Map Road Map
Parts of Map The Scale of A Map Symbols Titles Axis Labels Legends Color coded right
Population Distribution The spread of people across the world.
Population Density The number of people living in a particular area – usually 1 square mile or 1 square kilometre – and can be written as total population/land area.
Push Factor A reason that encourages people to move away from their current country. Education Rights Healthcare Safety Strong Economy
Pull Factor A reason that makes a particular country seem attractive to potential immigrants. Education Rights Healthcare Safety Strong Economy
Refugee Someone who moves to another country because of fear of cruel or inhumane treatment (even death) in his or her home country as a result of race, religion, sexual orientation, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group.
Dependency Load The percentage of the population that is non-working. It is conventionally defined as including people younger than the age of 15 and older than the age of 65.
Doubling Time The length of time it takes for a country’s population to double at a particular population growth rate.
Periods Of High Immigration The Great Migration of Canada (also known as The Great Migration from Britain) A period of high immigration to Canada from 1815 to 1850, involving over 800,000 immigrants.
Periods Of Low Immigration Reciprocity Treaty Wasn’t economically stable once the Reciprocity Treaty got cancelled because they depended on the USA for all the support. British and French War There was a war and usually people don’t want to live in a country with lots of war.
Point Based Immigration System Min of 67 points English and/or French Skills-28 points Education-25 points for University Degree Experience-15 points for 6+ years of experience. Age-between 18-35,maximum points are 12 Arranged Employment in Canada-10 points Adaptability-10 points
Population Pyramid A type of graph that shows population distribution by age and gender
Birth Rate The number of births per year in a population per year per 1000 people.
Death Rate The number of deaths per year in a population per year per 1000 people.
Immigrant Classes Family: Coming to live closer to family Economic: skilled workers and business people Other: People accepted as immigrants for compassionate reasons Refugees: people who are escaping persecution, torture or cruel and unusual punishment
Levels of Development in Countries Developed Developing Newly Developing Undeveloped
Official Development Assistance (ODA) A financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social, and political development of developing countries.
Demographic Transition Model It shows/refers to the transition from high birth and death rates to lower birth and death rates as a country or region develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system.
Literacy Rate The percentage of people who are able to read, write and use arithmetic vs those who are not able to
Percentage of Workers in Agriculture The percentage of people working in a farming/agricultural business.
Sustained Yield Management The process of managing a renewable resource to ensure that the amount harvested each year does not cause long term depletion of resource. The harvest is equal to or less than the amount replenished each year.
Waste Diversion Processes that reduce the amount of waste that ends up going to landfills. These include source reduction (producing less waste in the first place), recycling, and reusing.
3 R’s Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
Renewable Resource Resources that can be regenerated if used carefully
Non-Renewable Resource Resources that are limited and can not be replaced once they are used up
Natural Resource Things found in total stock that people find useful.
Resource Anything that can be used to produce goods and services, such as raw materials, workers, money and land.
Aquaculture Fish farming
Groundwater Water held underground in tiny spaces in the soil or some types of rocks.
Intensive Farming A way of producing large amounts of crops, by using chemicals and machines
Extensive Farming An agricultural production system that uses small inputs of labor, fertilizers, and capital, relative to the land area being farmed.
Clear Cutting The process of cutting down and removing every tree from an area.
Selective Cutting Cutting down of selected trees in a forest according to criteria regarding minimum tree size for harvesting, specifications of the number, spacing and size classes of residual trees per area, and allowable cut.
Inshore Fishing Commercial fishing carried out close to shore in small, independently owned boats.
Offshore Fishing Commercial fishing carried out farther from shore in large company owned boats.
Reasons for the collapse of the East Coast Fisheries Over fishing Poor technology Relied on cod too much Not giving the fish enough time to reproduce
Alternative Energy Source Alternative energy is any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel.
Fossil Fuels A natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms.
Types of Industry Primary Industry-Provides the materials Secondary industry-Uses the materials to create products Tertiary Industry-Provides the products to consumers
Low Density Living A type of housing that looks like a large detached home on a very large residential block. These types of homes are often associated with rural residential areas where the housing density is very low.
Medium Density Living A type of housing where more than one new home is constructed and each new home has its own, separate footprint on the land. These types of homes are the townhouse and unit development
High Density Living A type of housing where more than one new home is constructed and each home does not have its own footprint on the land, rather the homes occupy airspace. These types of homes are apartments.
Suburban A residential district located on the outskirts of a city.
Suburbia The outer parts of a town, where there are houses, but no large shops, places of work, or places of entertainment.
Urbanization Growth in the percentage of a country’s population that lives in cities and towns
Urban Sprawl Largely uncontrolled expansion of cities onto adjacent rural lands higher water and air pollution increased traffic higher taxes harmful effects on human health loss of natural habitats, wildlife and open space increased car dependency
Land Use Residential Commercial Industrial Institutional Agricultural
Lower Order Goods and Services Goods and services that are purchased frequently. Generally these goods and services are inexpensive.
Higher Order Goods and Services Goods and services that are needed infrequently. These goods and services tend to be quite specialized and often costly.
Created by: EyeCandy7