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History of Microbio

Microbiology 1

QuestionAnswer
17th century English philosopher who made a compound microscope and observed cells for the first time. Robert Hooke
What material were the first observed cells? Cork
What were the first cells named? What does this mean? Cella (rooms/compartments)
17th century Dutch tradesman who made lenses from crushed glass which increased magnification of a microscope Antony van Leeuwenhoek
When lenses were made for the microscope, what were people able to view? Microorganisms: Yeast, protozoa and even bacteria.
What is the difference between spontaneous generation and biogenesis? Spontaneous generation: life spontaneously arises from non-living material via a "vital force." In Biogenesis, life arises from life, with no vital force.
Compare observational science vs. experimental science. Observational science is just observing the results; uses inductive reasoning. Experimental science relies on the results of several experiments, deductive reasoning (using laws).
17th century Italian Naturalist who performed one of the first scientific experiments: using a jar covered in gauze for "vital force." Who is it and what did this prove? Francisco Redi - showed that spontaneous generation could not account for maggots coming from rotting. However, spontaneous generation still thought to account for cells rising from non-living matter.
17th century British Naturalist who believed spontaneous generation accounted for generation of cells - he heated flasks of nutrient broth and corked them after they cooled. Who is this and what was their conclusion? John Needham, concluded that vital force from air was at play. (material needed air for the vital force)
17th century Italian Naturalist who suggested that cells came from the air to generate more cells in the broth. Repeated past experiment with 3 flasks : open, loosely corked and sealed. Who was it and what was the conclusion? Lazzaro Spallanzani - open cork had lots of microbes, loosely had some and sealed had none. Concluded that microbes growing in broth came from the air rather than vital force.
Which scientist put spontaneous generation to rest? Louis Pasteur
What was Pasteur's first experiment? Similar to Spallanzani's where there were sealed flasks; critics claimed sealing of flask prevented life force from entering broth.
What was Pasteur's second experiment? Flasks had an S-shaped neck that allowed air to enter but not contaminants. However, when neck broke or flask laid on side, microbes grew.
Other than his discoveries about spontaneous generation, what else did Pasteur do? He showed that yeast was responsible for fermentation (before, fermentation was thought NOT to involve organisms)
What did Pasteur's ideas about fermentation lead to? Germ Theory of Disease - some microorganisms are responsible for infectious disease. (Germs cause disease)
In the 13th century, what was known about diseases and what was done about it? We knew disease could be transmitted between 2 people. Quarantines were used to prevent spread.
In the 18th century, what were the beliefs about disease? Disease was a result of "bad air"
What were miasma? In 18th century, people believed miasma were poisonous particles of decomposed matter in the air (in dirty air)
What did the Chinese find out about smallpox in the 14th century? Blowing smallpox powder into peoples nose resulted in mild cases and then immunity.
What did the Europeans find out about smallpox in the 18th century? Europeans inoculated smallpox scabs under the skin and found mild cases, then immunity.
Who noticed that milkmaids who had mild cases of cowpox did not get deadly smallpox? Edward Jenner
What was Edward Jenner's first experiment in 1976? Jenner inoculated a healthy boy with cowpox; boy got slight fever and recovered. When boy was exposed to smallpox, developed a skin reaction but did not get sick.
What was Edward Jenner's second experiment in 1978 and what did this result in? Jenner repeated same experiment with others (cowpox and smallpox).. verified effectiveness of vaccination. Soon became widely used to prevent smallpox.
200 years after Jenner, what did WHO do? (and who is WHO) WHO = world health organization. They organized a world-wide vaccination effort and in 1980, smallpox was pronounced eradicated.
19th Century German Doctor who observed that anthrax could be transmitted from farm animals to humans. Robert Koch
Explain Robert Koch's experiment in 1875: 1) Injected mice with blood from diseased sheep and cattle. 2) Observed same symptoms of disease in mice. (Found rod-shaped bacteria) 3) Injected isolated bacteria into healthy mice, and they became diseased too. (same rod-shape bacteria)
What are Koch's 4 Postulates? 1) Same microbe present in each case of disease. 2) Microbes isolated from diseased host and grown in culture. 3) Microbes from pure culture inoculated in otherwise healthy animal resulting in disease. 4) Identical microbes are isolated and cultured.
What were 2 aspects of Koch's Postulates (What were they used for?) 1) Used to establish cause-effect relationship between microbes and disease. 2) Lead to Koch winning a Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1905.
Created by: sham13