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Chapter 12


sex chromosome one of the pair of chromosomes that determines the sex of an individual.
autosome any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
sex-linked trait a trait that is determined by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes, such as the X chromosome or the Y in humans.
linked gene one of a pair of genes that tend to be inherited together
chromosome map a diagram of gene position of the bronchi
map unit in chromosome mapping, an increment of 1 percent in the frequency crossing-over
germ-cell mutation mutation that occurs in an organism's gametes.
somatic-cell mutation a mutation that occurs in a body cell
lethal mutation a gene or chromosomal mutation that influences the development of an organism in such a way that the organism cannot survive.
deletion the loss of a part of DNA from a chromosome
inversion a reversal in order of the genes, or of a chromosome segment, within a chromosome.
translocation the movement of a segment of DNA from one chromosome to another, which results in the change in the position of the segment; also the movement of the soluble nutrients from one part of a plant to another.
nondisjunction the failure of homologous
point mutation a mutation in which only one nucleotide or nitrogenous base in a gene is changed
substitution a mutation in which a nucleotide or a codon in DNA is replaced with a different nucleotide.
frameshift mutation a mutation that results in the misreading of the code during translation because of a change in the reading frame.
insertion mutation a mutation is which one or more nucleotide are added to a gene.
pedigree a diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family
carrier in biology, an individual who has one copy of a recessive autosomal allele that causes disease in the homozygous condition
genetic disorder an inherited disease or disorder that is caused by a mutation in a gene or by a chromosomal defect
polygenic a characteristic of an organism that is determined by many genes
complex character a character such a skin color that is influences strongly by both genes and the environment.
multiple allele more than two alleles (versions of the gene) for a genetic trait
codominance a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed
incomplete dominance a condition in which a trait in an individual is intermediate between the phenotype of the individual's two parents because the dominant allele is unable to express itself fully
sex-influenced trait an autosomal trait that is influenced by the presence of male or female sex hormones
Huntington's disease a rare hereditary disease of the brain characterized by involuntary movements of the limbs or face, decreasing mental abilities, and eventual death
amniocentesis a procedure used in fetal diagnosis in which amniotic fluid is removed from the uterus of the pregnant woman
chorionic villi sampling a procedure in which the chorionic villi to are analyzed to diagnose fetal genotypes
genetic counseling the process of testing and informing potential parents about their genetic makeup and the likelihood that they will have offspring with genetic defects or hereditary diseases
gene therapy a technique that places a gene into a cell to correct a hereditary disease or to improve the genome
Created by: FarlowA20