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MB 12.1

MB Chapter 12, Section 1

TermDefinition
sex chromosome one of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
autosome any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
sex-linked trait a trait that is determined by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes, such as the X chromosome or the Y chromosome in humans
linked gene a pair of genes that tend to be inherited together
chromosome map a diagram of gene positions on a chromosome
map unit a frequency of crossing-over of 1 percent
germ-cell mutation a mutation that occurs in an organism's gametes
somatic-cell mutation a mutation that occurs in a body cell
lethal mutation a gene or chromosomal mutation that influences the development of an organism in such a way that the organism cannot survive
deletion the loss of a part of DNA from a chromosome
inversion a reversal in the order of the genes, or of a chromosome segment, within a chromosome
translocation the movement of a segment of DNA from one chromosome to another, which results in a change in the position of the segment; also the movement of soluble nutrients from one part of a plant to another
nondisjunction the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis I or the failure of sister chromatids to separate during mitosis or meiosis II
point mutation a mutation in which only one nucleotide or nitrogenous base in a gene is changed
substitution a mutation in which a nucleotide or a codon in DNA is replaced with a different nucleotide
frameshift mutation a mutation, such as the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in a coding sequence, that results in the misreading of the code during translation because of a change in the reading frame
insertion mutation a mutation in which one or more nucleotides are added to a gene, which can also result in a frameshift mutation
Created by: simmonsr20