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Biology Ch 12.1

Ch.12 vocab

Sex chromosomes contain genes that determine the sex of an individual
Autosome any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
Sex-linked trait refers to a trait that is coded for by an allele on a sex chromosome
Linked gene pairs of genes that tend to be inherited together
Chromosome map a diagram of gene positions on a chromosome. shows the linear order of genes on a chromosome
MAP UNIT frequency of crossing-over of 1 percent
Germ-cell mutation occur in an organism's gametes. do not affect the organism itself, but they can be passed on to the offspring
Somatic-cell mutation take place in an organism's body cells and can therefore affect the organism
LETHAL MUTATION cause death, often before birth
Deletion the loss of a part of DNA from a chromosome due to breakage
Inversion a chromosomal segment breaks off, flips around backward, and reattaches
Translocation a piece of one chromosome breaks off and reattaches to a nonhomologous chromosome
Nondisjunction a chromosome fails to separate from its homologue during meiosis
Point mutation is a change that occurs within a single gene or other segment of DNA on a chromosome
Substitution one nucleotide replaces another
Frameshift mutation making all amino acids downstream change
Insertion mutation one or more nucleotides are added to a gene, which can also result in a frameshift mutation
Created by: SchmidtE20