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North A. & Middle E.

North Africa and Middle East flashcards for vocabulary.

Alluvial soil A fine-grained fertile soil deposited by water flowing over flood plains or in river beds. alluvial deposit, alluvial sediment, alluvium, alluvion-clay or silt or gravel carried by rushing streams and deposited where the stream slows down.
Wadi A valley, ravine, or channel that is dry except in the rainy season.
Phosphate A a salt or ester of phosphoric acid, containing PO43− or a related anion or a group such as —OPO(OH)2.
Oasis A a fertile spot in a desert where water is found.
Pastoralism Used for or related to the keeping or grazing of sheep or cattle.
Ethnic diversity Pertaining to or characteristic of a people, especially a group (ethnic group) sharing a common and distinctive culture, religion, language, or the like.
Infrastructure The basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g., buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.
Domesticate Tame (an animal) and keep it as a pet or for farm produce.
Culture hearth A cultural hearth is a site of innovation from which basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to many cultures. A cultural hearth is a heartland, a foundation of a major culture.
Cuneiform Denoting or relating to the wedge-shaped characters used in the ancient writing systems of Mesopotamia, Persia, and Ugarit, surviving mainly impressed on clay tablets.
Hieroglyphics Enigmatic or incomprehensible symbols or writing.
Monotheism The doctrine or belief that there is only one God.
Prophet A person regarded as an inspired teacher or proclaimer of the will of God.
Mosque A Muslim place of worship.
Nationalism A patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts.
Nationalize Placed under government control.
Embargo A ban on trade.
Ziggurat Mud-brick temples.
Bedouin Desert nomads.
Bazaar A market in a Middle Eastern country.
Arable Land suitable for farming.
Commodity A raw material or primary agricultural product that can be bought and sold, such as copper or coffee.
Petrochemical Relating to or denoting substances obtained by the refining and processing of petroleum or natural gas.
Gross domestic product The total value of goods produced and services provided in a country during one year.
Hajj The Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca that takes place in the last month of the year, and that all Muslims are expected to make at least once during their lifetime.
Atlas Mountains Africa’s longest mountain range; reaches across Morocco and Algeria. Northern slopes have Mediterranean climate and support farming.
Caucasus Mountains It lies between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region. The Caucasus Mountains include the Greater Caucasus in the north and Lesser Caucasus in the south.
Arabian Peninsula A peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate. From a geological perspective, it is considered a subcontinent of Asia.
Persian Gulf The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean through the Strait of Hormuz and lies between Iran to the northeast and the Arabian Peninsula to the southwest.
Sinai Peninsula A sparsely populated desert region between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. On its southern tip, Sharm el-Sheikh resort is a base for diving and snorkeling around the reefs of Ras Mohammed National Park.
Anatolia Known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Dead Sea A salt lake whose banks are more than 400m below sea level, the lowest point on dry land. Its famously hypersaline water makes floating easy, and its mineral-rich black mud is used for therapeutic and cosmetic treatments at area resorts.
Caspian Sea The largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea. It is in an endorheic basin located between Europe and Asia
Aral Sea Until the 1960s, it was the world’s fourth-largest inland sea. Now it is just a fraction of its former size. The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake lying between Kazakhstan in the north and Uzbekistan in the south.
Nile River A major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa. It is generally regarded as the longest river in the world, however other conflicting sources cite a 2007 study that gave the title to the Amazon River in South America.
Tigris River The eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates. The river flows south from the mountains of southeastern Turkey through Iraq and empties itself into the Persian Gulf.
Euphrates River The longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia.
Sahara The third largest desert in the world. It stretches from the Red Sea in the east and the Mediterranean in the north to the Atlantic Ocean in the west, where the landscape gradually changes from desert to coastal plains.
Rub’ al-Khali The largest contiguous sand desert in the world, encompassing most of the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula.
Kara-Kum A desert in Central Asia. Its name means Black Sand in Turkic languages. It occupies about 70 percent, or 350,000 km², of the area of Turkmenistan
Gulf of Aqaba A large gulf at the northern tip of the Red Sea, east of the Sinai Peninsula and west of the Arabian mainland. Its coastline is divided between four countries: Egypt, Israel, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia.
Strait of Hormuz A strait between the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf. It provides the only sea passage from the Persian Gulf to the open ocean and is one of the world's most strategically important choke points.
Aswan High Dam An embankment dam built across the Nile at Aswan, Egypt between 1898 and 1902. Since the 1960s, the name commonly refers to the Aswan High Dam.
Created by: jayce.courville



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