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Genetics Study Guide

Genetics, DNA, Cells

QuestionAnswer
The passing of traits from parents to offspring heredity
The study of inheritance genetics
A unit of genetic material that determines a trait gene
Strong form of a gene, which is expressed even if a recessive gene is present dominant
the weak form of a gene, which is not expressed when the dominant form is also present recessive
A trait that an organism actually shows (what you see) phenotype
Gene combination that determines phenotype genotype
A genotype which is a combination of two different alleles for the same gene (Xx or Bb) hybrid
Cell division that produces gametes or spores having one set of unpaired chromosomes meiosis
The copying process in which new DNA is created replication
A change in the DNA or chromosomes; can occur in body cells and sex cells mutation
What is the difference between a genotype and a phenotype? Genotype is the inner heredity that holds genetic code and phenotype are the traits on the outside/what you can see
In a Genotype of Cc and cc, where C is Curly and c is straight. What would be dominant and what would be recessive if the punnet square were Cc, Cc, cc, cc? Curly dominant, Straight recessive
If you cross a male with brown eyes and a female with blue eyes what is the possible percentage the children would have blue eyes? 50%
When someone has one dominant gene and one recessive gene for a certain trait, they are said to be __________ hybrid
What gene is always expressed? Heterozygous
What gene is only expressed when it is paired with another gene identical to itself? Homozygous
Who was Mendel? Scientist who created the Punnet Square
What does purebred mean (homozygous) Two of the same form of the gene; one from mom and one from dad
What a might a homozygous gene look like? TT, tt
What does hybrid mean (heterozygous)? Two different forms of a gene, the one from and from dad are DIFFERENT
What might a heterozygous gene look like? Dd
What are 2 differences between meiosis and mitosis? Mitosis makes two daughter cells and meiosis makes 4 daughter cells Meiosis has half the number of chromosomes as parent and mitosis has the same
What are 2 more differences between meiosis and mitosis? Meiosis' purpose is sex cells and mitosis' purpose is to grow and/or replace cells Mitosis' daughter cells are identical to parent and meiosis' daughter cells are different from parent cells
What is the difference between acquired and inherited traits? Inherited traits get passed down from generation to generation in genetic material (eye color, hair color) Acquired traits are traits that develop after birth (talents, instincts)
How many alleles (gene variations) doe each complete gene contain? 4 (2 from each parent)
How many alleles get passed on to the offspring (for each gene)? 2
What are the 3 major rules of Mendelian Inheritance? Inherited traits are determined by genes and passed down from parent to children A child has a gene set from mom and one from dad A trait may not be observable but it's gene can be passed to the next generation
What is a double helix? a basic structure of a DNA molecule
What the 4 letters in the DNA alphabet A, T, C, G
How do the DNA letters pair up? C goes with G and A goes with T
What did Watson and Crick do? First to develop an accurate model of DNA
What did Franklin do? Created images of the DNA molecule using xray diffraction
Why is DNA important? It gives the body instructions on how to run (function)
Where is it found? In the nucleus
Created by: julie_seaman