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Atoms notes

review notes 1-9

atom the smallest part of an element that can be identified as that element
elements simpler substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
compound two or more elements that have been combined chemically
molecule the smallest part of a substance that has all the properties of the substance
proton positively charged particle
electron negatively charged particle
neutron neutral charged particle
nucleus center or core of an atom where protons and neutrons are found
electron cloud many energy levels surrounding the nucleus where electrons are found
energy levels used to predict the place where an electron is most likely to be found
atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
AMU Atomic mass unit
atomic mass total mass of protons and neutrons in an atom
mass number the actual number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus an atom
1st energy level 2 electrons
2nd energy level 8 electrons
3rd energy level sometimes 8 or 18 electrons
valence electrons the electrons in an atom's outer energy level
isotope an atom of an element with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
periodic table a table that organizes all elements according to their physical or chemical properties
periodic a repeating pattern
period a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
group a vertical column of elements in the periodic table
chemical symbol a shorthand way of writing the names of elements
metals elements that have properties of luster, ductility, and malleability
ductile can be drawn into thin wires
malleable can be hammered into shape
luster shine
alkali metals very chemically active, rarely found as pure metals in nature called "the sodium family"
Alkaline earth metals also chemically active and readily combined with other elements "the calcium family"
transitional metals can change their amount of valance electrons , depending on the chemical bond
other metals solid, high density, opaque
rare earth metals despite their name, are abundantly found in earth's crust
non-metals elements that have none of the properties of metals; can be gases or brittle solids
halogens considered non-metals and known as the "salt-formers" because they chemically bond with group one elements to make halogens called salt
Noble (inert)gases six elements that make up the last group(18) of the periodic table; they do not readily combine with other elements
metalloids the element that possess the qualities of metals as well as non-metals
ion an atom with an electric charge
ionic bond a bond formed between atoms that have gained or lost electrons
oxidation number shows how many electrons an gains, loses, or shares when it forms a chemical bond
covalent bond a bond formed when atoms share electrons
chemical formula a way of writing the name of a compound using chemical symbols
subscript a number written to the lower right of a chemical symbol identifying the number of atoms in that molecule
chemical reaction a process in which new substances with new chemical and physical properties are formed
Created by: rlin