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Rocks and Minerals

TermDefinition
porosity amount of pore space in a rock or soil
Deposition When sediments are deposited or dropped in a new location
Erosion Wind, water and ice move sediments
Sediments small pieces of broken down rock and mineral fragments
sedimentary rock rocks made from sediments
Lithification hardening of sediment into rock through compaction and cementation
compaction pressure
Cementation stuck together with natural glue
metamorphic rock rock formed from another rock by heat and pressure
parent rock The existing rock that turns into a metamorphic rock
Igneous rock rock formed from cooling magma or lava
Intrusive igneous rock Rock formed below the surface from magma cooling
Extrusive Igneous rock Rock formed above the surface from lava cooling
Weathering wind, water and ice break down rocks
rock a naturally occurring solid made from mineral pieces or rock fragments
mineral a naturally occurring solid with a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition
ore a mined deposit that make a profit
rock cycle a continuous series of events through which a rock is transformed from one type to another
permeability how easily water move through a rock or soil
loess wind blown silt or dirt
loam mixed dirt, pebbles, sand and rocks
cleavage when a mineral breaks on a flat surface
felsic igneous rock light in color
mafic igneous rock dark in color
coarse grained igneous rock with a rough texture, takes a longer time to cool
fine grained igneous rock with a smooth texture, cools quickly
strata layers in a sedimentary rock
stratification Process of making layers in a sedimentary rock
organic sedimentary rock made from the remains of dead plants and animals
Contact metamorphism metamorphic rocks are created from the heat given off by nearby magma
Regional metamorphism metamorphic rocks are created from the pressure involved in plate tectonics
Foliated metamorphic rock that has aligned grains of flat minerals - looks like colored bands
uplift The process that moves large amounts of rock up to Earth's surface or higher
streak the color of a mineral's powder
AMD Acid Mine Drainage
reclamation when a mine is no longer used, the land should be returned to its original state or better
mining extracting ore from the ground
Created by: jhenretta