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Mid-Term

Biology

QuestionAnswer
List the 7 characteristics of living things. 1) Cellular Organization 2) Reproduction 3) Responsiveness 4) Growth 5) Heredity 6) Homeostasis 7) Metabolism
Give a short definition for Cellular Organization. A cell is the basic building block of life
Give a short definition for Reproduction. Making more of own species
Give a short definition for Responsiveness. Respond to stimuli
Give a short definition for Growth. Cell gets larger
Give a short definition for Heredity. Pass on traits to offspring
Give a short definition for Homeostasis. Maintain internal stability
Give a short definition for Metabolism. All chemical reactions in an organism
Define the following terms Atom Simplest form of an element
Define the following term Molecule Bonded atoms
Define the following term Organelles Parts of a cell
Define the following term Cell The basic building block of life
Define the following term Tissue Groups of similar cells functioning together
Define the following term Organ Groups of similar tissues functioning together
Define the following term Organ System Groups of organs working together
Define the following term Organism A living thing
Define the following term Population Same organisms living together in the same place
Define the following term Community Multiple organisms living together
Define the following term Ecosystem Living and physical environment
Define the following term Biome Large geographical area that's similar throughout
Define the following term Biosphere All life on earth
What is the smallest part of a living organism that is still considered to be alive? A cell
Who is the father of microscopy? Antonie van leeuwenhoek
What is a compound microscope? Two or more separated lenses
What are the limitations of a light microscope? Light energy transmitted through waves, type of light used has limitations, lens materials, sensitivity of human eye.
List the six main elements involved in biology? Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Sulfer
What is Robert Hooke known for? Discovered honeycomb like structure in cork slice. He coined the term cell for these individual compartments he saw.
What is Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek known for? Saw cells because of microscope he created. Also found motile objects because of microscope. First person to ever view a living cell. Called them ani-molecules.
What is Fransisco Redi known for? Attempted to disprove the theory of spontaneous generation.
What is John Needham known for? Tried to disprove Francisco Redi theory.
What is Lorenzo Spallanzani known for? Disagreed with Needham, claimed he did not seal jars long enough.
What is Louis Pasteur known for? Used a swan-necked flask, allowed in air but trapped dust (and microbes). Squashes the idea of abiogenesis completely
What is Mathias Schleiden known for? Concluded that all plant tissues are composed of cells and that an embryonic plant arose from a single cell.
What is Theodor Schwann known for? Developed cell theory, of the various parts and functions of plants and animal corps. All animals are composed of cells.
What is Rudolf Virchow known for? His theory that all cells are created from the division of cells, described as ¨every cell originates from another existing cell like it¨.
What type of bond holds water molecules together? Covalent Bond
What is Adhesion? When water sticks to others
What is Cohesion? When water sticks to itself
What is the process called when you have to remove a water molecule to create a bond? Dehydration Synthesis
What is the process called when you add a water molecule to break a bond? Hydrolysis
What are carbohydrates made out of? Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
What are carbohydrates used for? Energy storage
What are some different types of lipids? Fats, Phospholipids, Steroids
What two molecules are fats made of? Glycerin & Fatty acids
What are fats used for? Energy storage
What are proteins used for? Enzymes, Support, Storage, Defence, Transport, Reactions, Signals, Movement
What are the two types of nucleic acids and what are they used for? DNA & RNA. DNA is for Heredity, RNA is used to make protein.
Which bio-molecule contains the largest amount of energy? Fats
What type of bond holds amino acids together? Peptide bond
A protein is made up of a long chain of ________ ______. Amino Acids
What is an enzyme? A protein that speeds up chemical reactions.
How do enzymes help a chemical reaction proceed (2 ways)? Decreases the amount of energy you have to put in. The enzyme places the molecule in the right direction.
An enzyme function depends on it's _______. Shape
What is a substrate? The specific reactant that an enzyme acts on.
List four variables that can affect the enzyme rate of function. Temp., PH, Salt concentration, Number of enzymes.
Study Diagram of Enzymes (Second Page)
True or False: Enzymes interact with specific substrates. True
True or False: Enzymes change shape after a reaction occurs. False
True or False: Enzymes speed up reactions. True
True or False: One enzyme can be used for many different types of chemical reactions. False
True or False: Enzyme reactions can be slowed or halted using inhibitors. True
What is the difference between an active site and an allosteric site? An active site is the region of the enzyme. The allosteric site is the regulation of a protein by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the active site.
What are the four levels of protein structure? Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary
What does differentiation mean? Over time the cell receives different instructions
What is a stem cell? Cells that have not had cell differentiation.
What are the differences between multipotent, pluripotent, and totipotent cells? Multipotent Cells- Limites only becomes small portion of cells Pluripotent Cells- Any cell except gametes Totipotent Cells- Any cell
What is the difference between a prokaryote and a eukaryote? Which one is bacteria? Both contain: DNA, Cytoplasm, Ribosomes, Cell Membrane Differences: Prokaryotic Cell - Single celled, No nucleus, No major organelles, simple, ex: Bacteria. Eukaryotic Cell: Multi-cellular, nucleus, organelles, complex, ex: Plant or Animal Cells
Know Cytoplasm and its function. Cytoplasm- How things move, gives cell shape, gives cell nutrients.
Know Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum and its function. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum- Detoxifies Cell, Human tolerances goes up because it gets rid of poison faster.
Know Nuclear Envelope and its function. Nuclear Envelope- Regulates what comes in and out of the nucleus.
Know Nucleus and its function. Nucleus- Controls the cell's function.
Know Nucleolus and its function. Nucleolus- Makes ribosomes.
Know Mitochondria and its function. Mitochondria- Produces energy for cell function.
Know Golgi Bodies and its function. Golgi Bodies- Process and bundles, modifies proteins.
Know Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum and its function. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum- Used for transporting proteins.
Know Ribosomes and its function. Ribosomes- Makes proteins. Free ribosomes- Stay in cell. Bound ribosomes (on endoplasmic reticulum)- Leave cell
Know Cell Membrane and its function. Cell Membrane- Controls what enters and leaves the cell.
Know Cell Wall and its function. Cell Wall- Provides strength and support communicates with other cells.
Know Leucoplast and its function. Leucoplast- Stores starch, lipids, and proteins. Non photosynthetic.
Know Chloroplast and its function. Chloroplast- Photosynthesis.
Know Vacuole and its function. Vacuole- Provides storage.
Know Lysosome and its function. Lysosome- Breaks down waste (gets rid of things)
Know Centriole and its function. Centriole- Helps cell division.
Know Chromatin and its function. Chromatin- Controls genes & DNA, when cells are not dividing.
Know Chromosome and its function. Chromosome- Carries DNA, when cells are dividing.
Know Microtubules and its function. Microtubules- Moves vesicles, granules, organelles, helps split cells.
Know Intermediate Filaments and its function. Intermediate Filaments- Anchors organelles in place
Know Microfilaments and its function. Microfilaments- Lets cell change shape.
Know Peroxisome and its function. Peroxisome- Breaks down very long chain of fatty acids. Get's rid of hydrogen peroxide.
Be able to label all the parts of the cell pictures. Be able to label all the parts of the cell pictures.
Usually the shape of the cell gives you a good indication of what? The function of the cell.
Give three differences between a plant and animal cells. Plant has a big vacuole, a cell wall, a chloroplast.
Where is the cell wall located? The cell wall surrounds the membrane.
What is the primary function of the cell membrane? The cell membrane controls what enters and leaves the cell.
Describe the structure of the cell membrane. The cell membrane is a double layer phospholipid bilayer.
What is the difference between a channel protein and a carrier protein? A channel protein acts as a door, moves specific molecules through cell membrane, physically open & close. Carrier proteins are always open.
What is the difference between passive transport and active transport? Passive is no energy required, High to Low. Active transport requires energy, Low to High.
Does a cell survive better with a large surface area to volume ratio or a small ratio? Why? A large surface area to volume ratio. The larger the ratio the smaller the cell because if the cell is too large then there is not enough membrane to go around the cell.
What part of the cell membrane is hydrophilic? Outer Membrane (Head)
What part of the cell membrane is hydrophobic? Inner Membrane (Tail)
What types of substances can move directly across the cell membrane? Non-Polar Substances.
Why can't water move directly across the cell membrane? How does it get across? Water can't move directly across because it has a negative a positive charge. It gets across through osmosis.
What is the difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion? During simple diffusion the molecules just pass through the membrane during facilitated diffusion the molecules pass through channels.
What is osmosis? The diffusion of water (diffuses to side with more salt).
Describe what hypertonic is and what would happen to a cell in this solution? Hypertonic is when there is more salt outside of the cell. Water leaves cell, cell shrivels up.
Describe what hypotonic is and what would happen to a cell in this solution? Hypotonic is when there is more salt inside of the cell. Water comes in cell, animals could burst, plants are happy.
Describe what isotonic is and what would happen to a cell in this solution? Isotonic is when there is equal movement of water in and out of the cell.
What do we mean when we say that the cell membrane is semi-permeable? Only certain molecules can go into the cell.
What direction does diffusion occur in? High to Low
Once equilibrium is reached, do the molecules stop diffusing? If not, what is occurring? No, they move back and forth at an equal rate.
What is endocytosis? The cell takes in large particles by engulfing them.
What is exocytosis? The cell gets rid of waste.
Can particles move from low concentration to high? If so, how does this occur? Yes, cells move against concentration gradient.
Describe the sodium potassium pump. 3 sodiums get pumped out & 2 potassium's get pumped in. This is important to send an electronic charge to tell your brain what to do.
What organelle is responsible for photosynthesis? Chloroplast
What is the equation for photosynthesis? 6CO2 + 6H2O + Light Energy = C6 H12 O6 + 6O2
What is a pigment? A chemical that can absorb certain waves of light.
What three pigments are found in plants that are used in photosynthesis? Chlorophyll, Xanthophyll, Carotene.
Why do leaves change color in the fall? Leaves change color because each pigment is a different color so when the pigment breaks down the other pigments are revealed.
Why is water needed in photosynthesis? Water is needed so it can be split in half so O2 goes into the air and H+ supplies electrons for reactions.
What is the product of the first electron transport chain? ATP
What is the product of the second electron transport chain? NADPH
What is the name of the enzyme used to make ATP? ATP Synthase
What happens when the sunlight hits the chlorophyll? Passed down to reaction center, and excites the electron.
What are the light reactions? The Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
What are the dark reactions? The Calvin Cycle
What is the major product of the Calvin Benson Cycle? Glucose, or Sugar (G3P)
What two molecules supply the energy for the Calvin Benson Cycle? Where do they come from? NADPH & ATP
What is ATP? Adenosine Triphosphate. Energy (Good at transferring, Bad at storing) How we transfer energy.
What is NADPH? Electron Carrier
Where does the CO2 come from that is used in photosynthesis? The air
Where does the oxygen come from that is released after photosynthesis? The O2 comes from (2) H2O
What are the four factors that affect photosynthesis? Temp., CO2 Concentration, Light Intensity, H2O Amount
Where do the light reactions occur? In the thylakoid membrane.
Where do the dark reactions occur? In the stroma (fluid inside chloroplasts).
The CO2 and the O2 enter and leave the plant through what structure? The stomata
Describe what the photosystems do. Absorb light passes to reaction center.
What does ATP become when it is used up? ADP
What is the first step to cellular respiration? Glycolysis
What is the second step to cellular respiration? Krebs Cycle / Citric Acid
What is the last step to cellular respiration? Oxidative Phosphorylation
Where do the oxygen and sugar come from to begin cellular respiration? Glucose
What does glycolysis mean? Splitting of Sugar/Breaking down glucose
What molecule does glycolysis begin with? Glucose
What does glycolysis end with? 2 Pyruvate
What is the net gain of ATP in glycolysis? 2
What is NADH and FADH2 used for? To carry electrons to ETC
If oxygen is present, what will pyruvate turn into? Acetyl CoA
How many total ATP are given off if both pyruvate molecules go through the Kreb's cycle? 2
How many total NADH are given off if both pyruvate molecules go through the Kreb's cycle? 6
How many total FADH2 are given off if both pyruvate molecules go through the Kreb's cycle? 2
What happens to all the NADH and the FADH2? Sent to ETC
Where is the Kreb's cycle located? In the mitochondrial matrix
What is the name of the enzyme that makes ATP? ATP synthase
How many ATP are produced by the electron transport chain for each molecule of glucose? ~34 ATP
How many total ATP are produced by cellular respiration? ~38 ATP
What do we call it when oxygen is present? Aerobic Respiration
What do we call it when oxygen is absent? Anaerobic Respiration
What is the purpose of oxygen in cellular respiration? Catch e´ at the end of ETC and to combine it with H+
If oxygen is not present, what is the alternative way to make ATP? Fermentation
What are the two types of fermentation? Alcohol Fermentation & Lactic Acid Fermentation
How are the two types of fermentation different? Lactic Acid Fermentation lets out - ATP + Lactic Acid. Alcohol Fermentation lets out - 3 Co2 + Ethanol + ATP
Why does it hurt after we work out for the first time? Lactic acid is created because of the low O2 levels which causes fermentation to try & create ATP which creates lactic acid.
What are the two steps of aerobic respiration? Kreb's Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle), ETC (Oxidative Phosphorylation)
How many chromosomes do humans have? 46
What do we call two identical chromatids that are connected? Sister chromatid
What is the place where the chromatids are connected called? Centromere
What is the process called that bacteria use to divide? Binary fission
How is a bacteria chromosome different from that of a human? A bacteria chromosome is circular DNA and is one strand, but a human has 46 chromosomes
Give three reasons that cells divide. Growth, Repair, Replace
What stage of the cell cycle does the stay in most of the time? Interphase (G1)
What three stages make up interphase? G1, S, G2
What happens in G1 phase? Growth and Matures in Cytoplasm
What happens in the S phase? Duplication of chromosomes
What happens in the G2 phase? Growth, Prepares to divide, Some proteins are built for division, Centrosomes are built.
Describe what the G0 phase is. Non-dividing cell
What stage of the cycle is the nucleus splitting? Mitosis
What stage of the cell cycle is the cell splitting? Cytokinesis
What are the stages of mitosis in order? Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
What happens in prophase? Spindle microtubules reach chromosomes, nuclear envelope disappears
What happens in prometaphase? Microtubules begin to emerge, chromosomes coil & become compact.
What happens in metaphase? Chromosomes align at the cell equator.
What happens in anaphase? Sister chromatids separate at the centromeres
What happens in telophase? Nuclear envelope forms, Chromatin uncoils, Spinal disappears
How is cytokinesis different in plant and animal cells? Animal cells completely split in half by a cleavage furrow & plant cells build a wall (Cell Plate) between each cell.
What stage of the cell cycle is the longest? Interphase (G1)
What stage of the cell cycle is the shortest? Cytokinesis
What stage of the mitosis is the longest? Prophase
What stage of the mitosis is the shortest? Anaphase
What is the G1 checkpoint checking for? G1 checkpoint checks if surroundings are favorable for dividing. if cell is large enough & healthy enough for dividing, and if any damage has occurred in DNA.
What is the G2 checkpoint checking for? G2 checkpoint checks for the DNA properly replicated without damage, and if the cells are large enough for division.
When does the M checkpoint occur? In metaphase
What does the M checkpoint check for? M checkpoint checks that each centromere is attached to a spindle fiber and that chromosomes are aligned properly at the cell equator.
What do we call it when a cell loses control of the cell cycle? Tumor
What is the difference between a tumor and cancer? Tumor- An abnormally growing mass of cells Cancer- Cells spread to other tissues grow rapidly without being inhibited by other cells
What does benign mean? Cells remain that the original site (Tumor)
What does malignant mean? Spread to other locations
What is the difference between asexual and sexual reproduction? Asexual Reproduction- does not need a mate and they clone themselves, quicker. Sexual Reproduction- does need a mate and they don't clone themselves.
List some types of asexual reproduction? Budding, Regeneration, Spores, Vegetative Propagation, Binary Fission.
List the stages of meiosis in order and know what happens in each stage. Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I, Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II.
What occurs during Interphase? The cytoplasm contents double, two centrosomes form, chromosomes duplicate in the nucleus during this phase.
What is the purpose of Meiosis I? To split the homologous pairs.
What occurs during Prophase I? Chromosomes coil and become compact, homologous chromosomes come together as pairs, each pair with four chromatids is called a tetrad, nonsister chromatids exchange genetic material by crossing over, nucleus disappears.
What occurs during Metaphase I? Tetrads align at the cell equator.
What occurs during Anaphase I? Homologous pairs separate and move toward opposite poles of the cell.
What occurs during Telophase I? Duplicated chromosomes have reached the poles, nuclear envelope reforms around each set of chromosomes, each nucleus has the haploid number of chromosomes.
What is the purpose of Meiosis II? To split the sister chromatids.
What occurs during Prophase II? Chromosomes coil and become compact, nuclear envelope breaks up again.
What occurs during Metaphase II? Sister chromatids align at the cell equator.
What occurs during Anaphase II? Sister chromatids separate, chromosomes move toward opposite poles.
What occurs during Telophase II? Duplicated chromosomes have reached the poles, nuclear envelope reforms around each set of chromosomes, with cytokinesis, four haploid cells are produced.
What is a homologous chromosome pair? Chromosomes that are matched in length, centromere position, & gene location.
What does haploid & Diploid mean? Haploid- half of the normal amount of chromosomes, humans 23, one set of chromosomes. Diploid-normal amount of chromosomes, humans 46, two sets of homologous chromosomes.
What is crossing over? Crossing over is an exchange of corresponding segments between nonsister chromatids on homologous chromosomes. Homologous pairs trading equal amounts of DNA.
When does crossing over occur? Prophase I
What is the name of the site where the chromosomes cross over? Chiasma
How many cells are formed at the end of meiosis? How many chromosomes do these cells have? 4,23
Know the differences between mitosis and meiosis. The end products. Mitosis produces 2 genetically identical diploid somatic daughter cells. Meiosis produces 4 genetically unique haploid gametes, uses homologous chromosomes.
What types of cells result from meiosis? Gametes
What types of cells go through mitosis? Somatic cells
What is the purpose of meiosis I? To split the homologous pairs.
What is the purpose of meiosis II? To split the sister chromatids.
Give three ways that genetic recombination can occur? Independent Orientation, Random Fertilization, Crossing Over
Created by: Elise.Postma