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AICE Biology

Infectious diseases

TermDefinition
Cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae (bacterium)
Malaria pathogen Plasmodium falciparum , p. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae (protoctist)
HIV/AIDS pathogen human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Tuberculosis pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis (in cattle) bacterium
Smallpox pathogen Variola virus
Measles pathogen a species of Morbillvirus
Infectious diseases diseases caused by organisms called pathogen
carriers people who can spread a pathogen but they are symptomless
transmission cycle the way a pathogen passes from one host to another
Site of action for cholera pathogen wall of small intestine
Choleragen toxin secreted by Cholera pathogen. It disrupts the functions of the epithelium lining of the small intestine resulting in salts and water leaving the blood which cause severe diarrhea.
Treating cholera Oral rehydration therapy in which glucose is effective. Ensure patients fluid losses in balanced with fluid intake which maintains osmotic balance of blood and tissue fluids.
Cholera clinical features/ symptoms severe diarrhea, loss of water and salts, dehydration, weakness.
Cholera transmission Occurs when people do not have access to proper sanitation and uncontaminated food. The bacteria is passed out through feces and handling food without washing hands.
Cholera method of diagnosis microscopical analysis of feces
Cholera incubation period 2 hours to 5 days
Malaria method of transmission female Anopheles mosquito (insect vector)
Malaria incubation period from a week to a year
Malaria clinical features/ symptoms fever, anemia, nausea, headaches, muscle pain, shivering, sweating, enlarged spleen
Malaria site of action liver, red brain cells, and brain cells.
Malaria
Epidemic Sudden increase of people with disease but not all around the world
Pandemic Increase of cages in a continent or across the world
Endemic Disease always in population, worldwide
4 ways that antibiotics interfere with pathogens 1. synthesis of bacteria walls 2. protein synthesis 3. cell membrane function 4. enzyme action
broad spectrum antibiotics effective to a wide range of bacteria
narrow spectrum antibiotics active only against a few
contact tracing when an infected person identifies all people they have been in contact with.
Created by: jcore