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Science 1/18 Test

Interphase Longest phase, cell grows, matures and does its job. DNA copied.
Prophase Chromosomes appear. Nuclear membrane breaks down. Spindle fibers appear.
Metaphase Chromosomes attach to spindle fibers at the centromere. Chromosomes line up in the center of the cell.
Anaphase Chromosomes are pulled apart and move to opposite ends (poles) of cell. One of each pair of sister chromatid is at each end of the cell.
Telophase Nuclear membrane reforms and the cell begins to pinch in (animal cell)
Cytokines The cell's cytoplasm divides to create two exact copies (daughter cells) of the parent cell.
Sexual Reproduction Involves two parents which both contribute their genetic information into offspring.
Gametes Egg and sperm cells that have half the number of chromosomes of a body cell.
Chromosome number Each species has its own number of chromosomes
How many chromosomes do humans have? 46 there are pairs of 23: on pair came from the mother and the other came from the father.
Karyotype Picture of all the paired chromosomes in size order
What are the last two chromosomes shown in karyotype to determine the gender. ( X and Y chromosomes) ? Sex chromosomes
Is XX female or male? Female
Is XY female or male? Male
Do males or females determine the sex of the offsprings? Why? Male because their sperm can carry either X or Y, passing it to their chromosome on their offspring. Mothers can only pass the X because they only have X's in their eggs.
Root tip lab Great places to study mitosis because the root tip is where the growth in roots occurs ( right behind the protective root cap) not only could be see cells in each stage of mitosis, but the lab proved that most cells are in Interphase in a tissue
What is mitosis? A series of organized steps that enables the nucleus of the cell to divide evenly
What is the best no result of mitosis? Two daughter cells are produced and are exactly the same as the parent cell.
Where does mitosis occur? In all body cells of all multi-called organisms
What is cancer? Uncontrolled cell division. Cells do not go through the normal cell cycle. They just keep dividing, so the cells grow into tumors.
What is mutation? Error in the genetic code. Example CTT is replaced by GTT.
What is mutagen? Substance that causes mutations such as X-rays or toxic chemicals.
Created by: LaxyLucy7



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